Monthly Archives: April 2017

Double Wide Mobile Homes vs Single Wide Mobile Homes

Over the past decade or so, manufactured homes (still commonly referred to as mobile homes) have become a great option for new homebuyers. Unlike the old shoddy mobile homes in trailer parks that people think of, manufactured homes now come as two-story homes or even town homes and include features like cathedral ceilings and fireplaces.

The basic configuration for manufactured homes, however, is still single wide or double wide. Single wide or single-section mobile homes are made of one main unit. The average single side manufactured home usually has about 1,100 square feet of living space while double wide average about 1,700 square feet. Needless to say, there are also larger manufactured homes, but single- and double-sides are still the most common sizes.

Manufactured homes do have their problems. According to Consumer Reports, single-section homes have more problems with floors, roofs, windows, and doors while multi-section home problems tend to be related to the joining of the sections.

In part the problems relate to the fact that the home is built in a factory and then transported to another location via flatbed truck. The motion involved can have a negative effect on the joints and connectors. However, manufacturers of quality homes do their best to correct any problems that may occur during transport.

Nowadays it may even be impossible to tell the difference between a mobile home and an on-site home unless you have seen it being built. The most common difference is that manufactured homes tend to have a lower roof slope because the home has to be moved under highway bridges.

On the other hand, the materials now used tend to be comparable to the quality of site-built homes and, other than roof slope, generally resemblance "regular" homes. Indeed, if a manufactured home were not located in a "trailer park", most people would have been hard-pressed to tell the difference.

Nowadays more double-sides are sold than single-wides. In great part this is because the typical home buyer wants more space, not less, and double-wide offer that at a price that is still far less expensive than a traditional home of the same size. Not only that, but zoning in many areas actually means that double-wide manufactured homes are the smallest size allowed.

As a homeowner, you should also know that double-wide manufactured homes tend to hold … or even increase … their value as compared to single-wide homes.

Aircraft Structural Components

The major aircraft structures are wings, fuselage, and empennage. The primary flight control surfaces, located on the wings and empennage, are ailerons, elevators, and rudder. These parts are connected by seams, called joints.

All joints constructed using rivets, bolts, or special fasteners are lap joints. Fasteners can not be used on joints in which the materials to be joined do not overlap – for example, butt, tee and edge joints. A fayed edge is a type of lap joint made when two metal surfaces are butted up against one another in such a way as to overlap.

Internal aircraft parts are manufactured in four ways: Milling, stamping, bending, and extruding. The metal of a milled part is transformed from cast to wrought by first shaping and then either chemically etching or grinding it. A stamped part is annealed, placed in a forming press, and then re-heat treated.

Bent parts are made by sheet metal mechanisms using the bend permission and layout procedures. An extrusion is an aircraft part which is formed by forging metal through a preshaped die. The resulting wrought forms are used as spars, stringers, longerers, or channels. In order for metal to be extruded, bent, or formed, it must first be made malleable and ductile by annealing. After the forming operation, the metal is re-heat treated and age hardened.

Airbus Wings

Here in the UK and in particular at the Airbus facility in North Wales, our expertise is in the manufacture of aircraft wings. Aircraft wings have to be strong enough to withstand the positive forces of flight as well as the negative forces of landing. Metal wings are of two types: Semicantilever and full cantilever. Semicantilever, or braced, wings are used on light aircraft. They are externally supported by struts or flying wires which connect the wing spar to the fuselage. A full cantilever wing is usually made of stronger metal. It requires no external bracing or support. The skin carries part of the wing stress. Parts common to both wing designs are spars, compression ribs, former ribs, stringers, stress plates, gussets. Wing tips and wing skins.

Airbus at Broughton employs more than 5,000 people, mostly in manufacturing, but also in engineering and support functions such as procurement and finance.

Wing Spars

Two or more spars are used in the construction of a wing. They carry the main longitudinal -butt to tip – load of the wing. Both the spar and a compression rib connect the wing to the fuselage.

Compression Ribs

Compression ribs carry the main load in the direction of flight, from leading edge to trailing edge. On some aircraft the compression rib is a structural piece of tubing separating two main spars. The main function of the compression rib is to absorb the force applied to the spar when the aircraft is in flight.

Former Ribs

A former rib, which is made from light metal, attaches to the stringers and wing skins to give the wing its aerodynamic shape. Former ribs can be classified as nose ribs, trailing edge ribs, and mid ribs running fore and aft between the front and rear spar on the wing. Formers are not considered primary structural members.

Stringers

Stringers are made of thin sheets of preformed extruded or hand-formed aluminum alloy. They run front to back along the fuselage and from wing butt to wing tip. Riveting the wing skin to both the stringer and the ribs gives the wing additional strength.

Stress Plates

Stress plates are used on wings to support the weight of the fuel tank. Some stress plates are made of thick metal and some are of thin metal corrugated for strength. Stress plates are usually held in place by long rows of machine screws, with self-locking nuts, that thread into specifically mounted channels. The stress-plate channeling is riveted to the spars and compression ribs.

Gussets

Gussets, or gusset plates, are used on aircraft to join and reinforse intersecting structural members. Gussets are used to transfer stresses from one member to another at the point where the members join.

Wing Tips

The wing tip, the outboard end of the wing, has two purposes: To aerodynamically smooth out the wing tip air flow and to give the wing a finished look.

Wing Skins

Wing skins cover the internal parts and provide for a smooth air flow over the surface of the wing. On full cantilever wings, the skins carry stress. However, all wing skins are to be rated as primary structures wherever they are on braced or full cantilever surfaces.

Fuselage Assemblies.

The largest of the aircraft structural components, there are two types of metal aircraft fuselages: Full monocoque and semimonocoque. The full monocoque fuselage has fewer internal parts and a more highly stressed skin than the semimonocoque fuselage, which uses internal bracing to obtain its strength.

The full monocoque fuselage is generally used on smaller aircraft, because the stressed skin eliminates the need for stringers, former rings, and other types of internal bracing, thus lightening the aircraft structure.

The semimonocoque fuselage derives its strength from the following internal parts: Bulkheads, longerers, keel beams, drag struts, body supports, former rings, and stringers.

Bulkheads

A bulkhead is a structural partition, usually located in the fuselage, which normally runs perpendicular to the keel beam or longerers. A few examples of bulkhead locations are where the wing spars connect into the fuselage, where the cabin pressurization domes are secured to the fuselage structure, and at cockpit passenger or cargo entry doors.

Longerons And Keel Beams

Longerons and keel beams perform the same function in an aircraft fuselage. They both carry the bulk of the load traveling fore and aft. The keel beam and longerons, the strongest sections of the airframe, tie its weight to other aircraft parts, such as powerplants, fuel cells, and the landing gears.

Drag Struts And Other Fittings

Drag struts and body support fittings are other primary structural members. Drag struts are used on large jet aircraft to tie the wing to the fuselage center section. Body support fittings are used to support the structures which make up bulkhead or floor truss sections.

Former rings and fuselage stringers are not primary structural members. Former rings are used to give shape to the fuselage. Fuselage stringers running fore and aft are used to tie in the bulkheads and
Former rings.

Aircraft Empennage Section

The empennage is the tail section of an aircraft. It consist of a horizontal stabilizer, elevator, vertical stabilizer and rudder. The conventional empennage section contains the same kind of parts used in the construction of a wing. The internal parts of the stabilizers and their flight controls are made with spars, ribs, stringers and skins.

Also, tail sections, like wings, can be externally or internally braced.

Horizontal Stabilizer And Elevator

The horizontal stabilizer is connected to a primary control surface, ie, the elevator. The elevator causes the nose of the aircraft to pitch up or down. Together, the horizontal stabilizer and elevator provide stability about the horizontal axis of the aircraft. On some aircraft the horizontal stabilizer is made movable by a screw jack assembly which allows the pilot to trim the aircraft during flight.

Vertical Stabilizer And Rudder

The vertical stabilizer is connected to the aft end of the fuselage and gives the aircraft stability about the vertical axis. Connected to the vertical stabilizer is the rudder, the purpose of which is to turn the aircraft about its vertical axis.

Ailerons

Elevators and rudders are primary flight controls in the tail section. Ailerons are primary flight controls connected to the wings. Located on the outboard portion of the wing, they allow the aircraft to turn about the longitudinal axis.

When the right aileron is moved forward, the left one goes down, then causing the aircraft to roll to the right. Because this action creates a tremendous force, the ailerons must be constructed in such a way as to withstand it.

Flight controls other than the three primary ones are needed on high-performance aircraft. On the wings of a wide-body jet, for example, there are as many as thirteen flight controls, including high and low-speed ailerons, flaps, and spoilers.

Flaps And Spoilers

Wing flaps increase the lift for take-off and landing. Inboard and outboard flaps, on the trailing edge of the wing, travel from full up, which is neutral aerodynamic flow position, to full down, causing air to pile up and create lift. Leading edge flaps – Krueger flaps and variable-camber flaps – increase the wing chord size and then allow the aircraft to take off or land on a shorter runway. Spoilers, located in the center section span-wise, serve two purposes. They assist the high-speed ailerons in turning the aircraft during flight, and they are used to kill the aerodynamic lift during landing by spreading open on touchdown.

Trim Tabs

Connected to the primary flight controls are devices called trim tabs. They are used to make fine adjustments to the flight path of an aircraft. Trim tabs are constructed like wings or ailerons, but are
Considerably smaller.

Fiscal Policy and the Challenging Economic Environment

In the face of the increasing alarming global economic crisis, the Philippine government, as the institutional embodiment of the sovereign authority of the Filipino people, is challenged to fulfill its constitutional mandate to protect the general welfare.

Debates over what government must do to save the economy are happening almost everywhere, from public offices and school classrooms to wet markets and barber shops. It is argued that it is through its fiscal administrative power that government attempts to resuscitate the dying economy.

Public fiscal administration generally reiterates the formulation, implementation and evaluation of policies and decisions on taxation and revenue administration; Resource allocation, budgeting and public expenditure; Public borrowings and debt management; And accounting and auditing (Briones 1983: 2).

The hope of seeing real economic progress seems to be dependent on the success of the whole fiscal policy process. Fiscal policy derives its meaning and direction from the people's aspirations and goals which are said to be embodied in the Medium Term Philippine Development Plan.

"The basic task of the Medium Term Philippine Development Plan … is to fight poverty and build prosperity for the greatest number of the Filipino people. We must open up economic opportunities, maintain socio-political stability, and promote good stewardship-all to Ensure a better quality of life for all our citizens. We will focus on strategic measures and activities that will spur economic growth and create jobs. This can only be done with a common purpose to put our economic house back in working order "(Arroyo 2004 ).

But the big question is: how does government carry out its fiscal administrative function to really cushion the Filipinos from the adverse effects of the onrushing global financial crisis?

The Fiscal Policy as a Political Process

Lying at the heart of public fiscal administration are the fiscal policies shaped by the socio-economic and political interaction of internal and external policy environment. Internal policy environment includes the decision-making agencies of government such as Congress, the Office of the President and its support agencies, the National Economic and Development Authority, the Department of Budget and Management, the Department of Finance, and the Commission on Audit, Among others. Internal environment also includes the private sector, interest groups, non-government organizations and people's organizations in the society.

The external policy environment, on the other hand, encompasses foreign interest groups composed of international financial institutions like the World Bank (WB), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the Asian Development Bank, among others. Moreover, external policy environment includes the international agreements and economic cooperation such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), World Trade Organization (WTO), Asia and the Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) ), The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), and institutions that extend Official Development Assistance (ODA), among others (Cuaresma 1996: 46).

Professor Leonor Briones of the UP National College of Public Administration and Governance claims that "these foreign interest groups prefer to maintain a low profile in local fiscal politics. They do not have to come out in the open anyway-the WB-IMF has regular consultations With Philippine officials due to the strength of the Philippine public debt; the MNC's [multinational corporations] are represented by local dummies, and the foreign creditors by their Filipino proxies. In the open political contest, these foreign interest groups express their preferences by financially supporting Their politicians. Where the local technocrats and bureaucrats are more significant in fiscal policy administration, they attempt to influence their nomination and appointment. " (Briones 1983: 97)

This only means that the financial health of the country is at the mercy of the international financial creditors and policy bodies that issue our fiscal prescription. While it is often argued by schools that the field of public administration must not be political in its very nature, fiscal administration as its sub-field is not free from political maneuvering as it is operating within the political system.

From the scholarly view of Professor Briones, fiscal policy has four major functions: (1) the allocation function, (2) the distribution function, (3) the stabilization function, and (4) the development function.

The major fiscal instrument in the allocation function of fiscal policy is the national budget. In general, a national budget is the financial plan of the government for a given fiscal year, which shows what its resources are, and how they will be generated and used over the fiscal period. The budget is the government's key instrument for promoting its socio-economic objectives. The government budget also reiterates the income, expenditures and sources of borrowings of the national government that are used to achieve national objectives, strategies and programs.

In developing countries like the Philippines, gaps between the rich and the poor are insurmountable. Thus, distribution of income and wealth is a serious problem. The distribution function may have serious implications for tax and expenditure policies. Recently, a report came out saying that the Department of Finance (DOF) planned to jack up the sales tax or value added tax (VAT) to 15 percent from the current level of 12 percent to raise much-needed revenue to plug the country's ballooning Budget deficit which hit a record P298.5 billion last year (Agcaoili 2010).

The report makes the fiscal debts even more heated as the issue of stability, another function of fiscal policy, is now the subject of concern. Often, government resorts to increasing taxes to have the means of public spending or avoid budget deficit. But it is known to many the myriad tradeoffs it can create.

People often hear in the news the fiscal plans created by government all in the name of "development," another function of fiscal policy. Perhaps, this word is the most overused, if not abused, word in the political arena.

Development is multi-faceted. The word itself is nice to the ear. But it is a "very expensive commodity" in the words of Professor Briones. In order to translate development into reality, financing is, of course, needed. In harmony with other measures, fiscal policies are expected to generate resources in order to finance development activities (Briones 1983: 55). In loan-dependent countries like the Philippines, generating resources means borrowing more and paying even more.

Over one third of our national budget goes to debt servicing. With the widening fiscal deficit, the national government's debt now amounts to P4.42 trillion, accounting for more than half of its GDP and more than three times the government revenues if creditors were to call the debts in. The Philippines relies heavily on domestic and foreign borrowings to bridge its fiscal gap, which is expected to hit a record P325 billion this year (abs-cbnNEWScom).

The Challenging Economic Environment

Borrow more. Tax more. Pay more. It is a vicious cycle. It is without doubt that the Philippines, the then mighty tiger in Asia, has transformed into a desperate pussycat roared by the giant financial institutions to which we are heavily indebted. The Filipino people became victims of immoral and debilitating conditionalities imposed by the IMF and the international financial oligarchy.

The economic situation becomes even more difficult as the world is facing what many economists describe as the worst economic crisis in history. The credit crisis in the US has accelerated the rate of financial meltdown all over the world, making the international lending institutions more eager than ever to force heavily indebed countries like the Philippines to extract a pound of flesh from their people. The national government's total indentedness has ballooned as a result of sudden and sharp currency depreciation during this critical time of global economic uncertainties.

In response to minimizing the impact of the global economic downturn, the Philippine government embarks on measures aimed at stimulating positive performance in all sectors of society. Former Socioeconomic Sec. Ralph G. Recto, for example, proposed stimulus package intended to keep the economy afloat. As a consequence, Economic Resiliency Plan (ERP) was put in place to supposedly manage to sustain economic growth by fiscal policy adjustments along the implementation of pump-priming programs and vital projects and activities.

The former NEDA Chief simply argues that the government intends to battle the present crisis by increasing spending through what he calls stimulus package-a fiscal and monetary strategy that is very Keynesian in nature. The ERP basically entails "ensuring resources through better revenue collection; enhancement of cash liquidity, access to credit and low interest rates; and more effective spending. It seeks to ensure stable growth, save and create jobs, provide assistance to the most vulnerable sectors, Ensure low and stable prices, and improve competitiveness in preparation for the global economic rebound "(Recto 2009).

This stimulus package, however, is a mere pain reliever. It does not cure the cancer, which is the crisis itself. A major surgery operation, therefore, is needed.

Think out of the Box: A Fiscal Strategy for the General welfare

"There's life after the IMF."

These are the words of then President Nestor Kirchner of Argentina when he defied the predatory financial institutions that imposed belt-tightening measures on his people.

The newly elected Philippine President Noynoy Aquino must do the same. He must have the courage to disassociate himself from the deceivable legacy of "honor all debts" policy of his mother. The traditional government action plan for debt management such as bond exchanges, maximizing the use of ODA, guarantees for GOCCs, and more borrowings, will not create lasting economic growth.

The Philippines, as an independent nation, with all dignity and courage, must there declare a moratorium on foreign debt payments. This will allow our country enough time to rebuild and expand our productive physical economy.

Through this fiscal strategy, the country can channel huge amount of its annual budget, instead to debt servicing, towards effective educational system, efficient healthcare system, and sustainable scientific research centers focused on food production, health maintenance, and industry. Consequently, this will encourage real investment into agro-industrial and manufacturing sectors and ensure a genuine path towards development.

To seriously participate in the global effort to save the world's economy, the Philippine government should join the growing worldwide call for a new financial system of fixed exchange rates. This new financial system is said to put an end to the financial tsunami hitting practically all nations in the world today. Proposals are made by the Governments of Italy, Argentina, Malaysia and a growing number of countries, institutions, statesmen and patriots aiming at changing the global financial structure based on the tradition of the Bretton Woods Agreement of 1945 (Philippine LaRouche Society 2004)

The issue of fiscal policy amid global crisis is indeed a very complex and thought-provoking issue. The crisis, which we now face as a nation, requires intelligent understanding of the problem and courageous act to do what is right for the benefit of the present and future Filipino generations.

Starting a Startup Business? Choose the Right Business Consulting Firm for Success

Being your own boss is the dream of many and slowly, the instinct seems to be taking the world by storm. People are now more inclined to start their own firm, it seems to lure many people and running an own business shows the larger than life picture, however, the reality is a bit different. As an entrepreneur willing to start a new business you need to understand the market, do the need analysis and many researchers before executing your plan. You may be budding with business startup ideas but mine planning will not help you succeed, rather you need a right plan of action to succeed.

The upsurge of small business consulting firms has proven to be a panacea for startups. They offer the consultation and startup mentoring services which work as a guide for entrepreneurs to successfully implement and execute their business plan. Not only it supports the Business Startup Ideas but provides feedback to improve the business plan which helps in removing bottlenecks usually faced by startups.

Why do you need startup mentoring?

There is no denial to the fact that many startups fail in their nascent stage, and they may have a number of reasons for the same, the likes include entrepreneurs being naiveté and lack of supportive startup ecosystem, lack of funds, poor market conditions and much More. But, the most important factor that most of the startups miss is a lack of guidance, inspiration, and feedback from small business consulting firms and no startup mentoring. It may sound absurd to a few strong-headed entrepreneurs to take the support of a mentor to execute their business plan but these firms are a must to make your business successful.

Startup Mentoring – your ultimate supporter and motivator

In the lead to succeed, most of the entrepreneurs break rules or make mistakes which they are not even aware of, these mistakes, however, can adversely affect their business. Also, many times as an aspiring business builder you find yourself stuck in a situation where you do not know how to proceed. Startup Business Consulting firms and mentors work as a savvy guide who consistently provides you feedback.

Initially, you may be having a lack of confidence but with the mentorship of a good startup mentor, you can move ahead with confidence and without hesitation.

How to find the right startup consulting firm or a startup mentor for your company:

You are entrusting your faith and vision on a person who will be your mentor or support or guide, hence, it is very important that you have a strong relationship with them and at the same time, it's important that your startup mentor's or consulting firm's vision Should coincide with yours. A good startup has the following qualities:

  • An expert-level experience
  • Already a successful entrepreneur
  • Are patient and action oriented
  • A harsh critic yet supportive

Before moving ahead and getting associated with any firm or person, as an entrepreneur you should check for the aforementioned qualities.

What does a good startup mentor do?

A good startup consulting firm or a mentor will:

  • Listen to your concept and give honest feedback
  • Will give you time and talk through your areas of difficulties. Since they carry with them good amount of experience, they also share their experience which helps you understand your problems and come up with right solution
  • They are action oriented and since, always suggest practical ways on how to start a business by making optimum use of available resources

Takeaways-

You must accept the fact that it takes a village to become a successful entrepreneur, of course, your vision and idea is important but what's paramount is its right and timely execution which only comes with the right support system. The upsurge of companies like Virgin startup is a move to support and guide the newbies in the business world to succeed and survive.

Common Health and Safety Hazards in Factories

Just like elsewhere in the western world, In the UK as well the government has prescribed some safety regulations that have to be adhered to by any workplace. Protection against health and safety hazards may even extend to the families of people employed in hazardous occupations. In the European Union, member countries have enforced responsibilities to ensure that the legal basics related to occupational health and safety hazards is followed in any case.

Hazard is something that can cause harm if not controlled. A risk is the probability of the output which will occur if harm occurs. The income can be defined as the result of an uncontrolled hazard. Risk analysis is associated to identify risks, evaluate the risk, and identify and prioritize the required actions.

Workplace safety hazards are normally grouped into environmental hazards, environmental agents, physical agents, physical hazards, chemical agents, and biological hazards. Environmental hazards typically include asphyxiation and dehydration. Environmental agents include heat and cold stress. Physical hazards include collision, tripping, falling, and electricity. Physical agents include noise, vibration, and lighting.

Other hazards are mechanical hazards, biological hazards, and chemical agents. Depending on the type of work that is done in a factory, safety precautions have to be employed. Office workers can be affected by a flu spread by a co-worker, and a factory worker can receive serious injury because of an accident. Common health and safety hazards can be avoided by taking necessary precautions. But, even with all necessary precautions accidents do occur.

To minimize safety hazards, workers are issued safety goggles, helmets, gloves, safety shoes, and coveralls. For avoiding health hazards, a virus free and well ventilated environment is provided. Clean drinking water, clean and safe kitchen and eating areas are maintained. Some factories require medical checkups of the employees on a regular basis.

There are some basic health and safety rules that all factory owners are bound to follow. There are special rules for factories that use hazardous material. These include installation of safety showers and eye wash stands. Special safety clothes may also be required by law to be provided to the employees.

The common safety and health laws that factories in the UK have to follow can be found in the local factory laws. They may differ slightly depending on the local county laws. Health laws cover providing a well ventilated, clean, and dust free environment. Safety laws require wearing of proper safety equipment as required by the type of job being performed. If it is a factory where there is a probability of falling objects striking someone, then safety helmets must be worn. If the floors are wet or slippery, proper safety shoes must be worn.

The basic rules are very general in nature as they encompass the entire business spectrum. But there are further classifications that are factory dependent. If the factory handles harmful chemicals, then the safety laws are going to be different from a factory that does packaging. One single rule can not cover all factories' safety and health regulations. In most cases, the rules regarding safety and health can also be quite vague.

Export Processing Zones (EPZs) and Their Effects on the Growth of the "Globalization Project"

Allow me to begin this article by simply introducing some basic definitions. In general, the globalization project is referred to as the actions taken place by the government to participate in the world economy, usually through liberalization; Giving out freedom of trade and cutting off custom restrictions. The process of expansion of international trade and financial flow, as well as flow of production factors for an economy such as foreign direct investments are the main acts under the globalization project in an economic sense. Some statistics available show that this global movement -the globalization project -has raised the living standards for many, benefitting people all across the world. But I would have to mention that at the same time, it also has promoted poverty across the globe (which will be discussed in this article as it continues). The globalization project has many aspects to itself which one in particular could be defined as the development of EPZs, the neoliberal economic approach towards the global market and adjustments plans such as the ones used at the time of debt crises.

Since the economic crisis in the west in the 1980s (will attend to this point as we continue with the rest of the article), export processing zones have become a very important part of neoliberalism development strategy, which once again falls under the globalization project. Entry to the global market appears to be a very tempting opportunity for many countries since it attracts foreign markets and increases the GDP, the income of the government through attraction of foreign currencies and the number of sales of the domestic goods on a greater scale. The improvements in sales of a country are relevant to the supply and demand figures for domestic products. The fact that the consumer demand rises when the market is expanded helps a country to increase its exports. EPZs are a well known method for the governments to gain easy access to the global market. Export processing zones are defined areas of a country that are designed to attract foreign investments accordingly; Based what explained previously. The efforts start where government regulation, taxes and trade tariffs are lifted or are reduced. It is believed that through the entry in the world market, the economy of any country would benefit impressively without any losses, but when examined, globalization has some negative aspects towards the such nations. Such examples could be mentioned as: downgrading the social goals of the national development of a country and benefiting the rich in order to help them earn more profit while the poor suffer even more. Thus, one could simply say that the actions of globalization quote poverty indirectly.

Practically, export processing zones (EPZs) are used as a strategy to promote economic development; Therefore, EPZs are connected to the globalization subject through the elaboration of such developments. The goal of globalization is more varied that what it looks like would be. It could have been addressed to as the development of economy on the global scale, while the internals, national developments of a country are not much affected by the project. EPZs are helpful in order to achieve this goal and they allow countries to reach out into the international market despite the negative aspect of employment and wages that EPZs may bring for the nations involved. The role of the state in labor-management relations and the type of workers employed in these export zones is another factor that could relate to the growth of globalization project to EPZs. These roles are some critical variables which may affect the state's ability to maximize the economic potential of EPZs, resulting in earmarking more money / profit. Then again the lack of regulations in these trade zones comes at a great cost to workers, affecting their rights, health issues and security, environmental standards of the workplace and social protections. Governments may increase their profits, but they may face some internal issues in the future instead. People at the EPZs are hired through short term contracts (example would be like three months contracts) which increases the amount of employee turnover is such regions. Companies in the EPZs also deny additional trainings for the workers. Not only this would increase the rage among the employees, but it would also create unrest; Workers would more likely go on riots, especially since they want to obtain permanent jobs in comparison to a job that could let them off at any time. Ergo low-grade jobs are created at these countries. The solution to such a problem would be creating a production line. If manufacturing takes place, a need for high skilled employees and personnel would appear that demand higher wages. In this scenario, a multiplier effect on employment is taking place which exposes the domestic market. This helps out such nations to develop much quicker and better, just like what the western nations did in order to achieve independence in their development stage / project.

The export processing zones / free trade zones tend to be an attraction for the capitalism ideology. They have minimal custom control and domestic taxes which help businesses benefit much more from their sales. Another attraction of EPZs is the negotiation option available to the employees. EPZs allow labor forces to organize themselves freely and bargain collectively, but mostly in the favor of the business though. Another factor would be that multinational firms involved in the globalization project benefit by collection of large sums of money earned as profit and are provided incentive wealth through EPZs. EPZs encounter countless opportunities of trade with no limits that corporations could use for their benefits. As mentioned in "Development and Social Change" by Philip McMichael, EPZs mean more freedom for the business, but less freedom for people.

Sometimes EPZs are involved in exportation of resources and raw materials, a factor that makes the poor countries involved in the globalization project remain poor. Such nations are forced into exporting their commodities due to many factors which some of such reasons are argued about and are mentioned in this article as the audience follows on reading.

This ideology of neoliberalism uses a factor called debt. Many developing nations are in debt and poverty nowdays, partly due to the policies that some international institutions such as the World Bank or IMF have developed and spread around the globe. Debt is used by the rich nations around the globe to get in touch with the poor countries in order to gain access to their raw materials for cheaper prices. Basically debt management is being used by the wealth nations as a tool to take away the poor nations independencies, and to make the unfortunate regions dependent on loans. When tariffs are in place, countries focus on the development of internal industries and they compete in order to increase their sales, but when in debt, tariffs and other controls are removed which results in increscent of cheaper exports (especially raw materials) and imports of Finalized products from the other nations. When a country is in debt, it is forced to sell its products in mass amounts and for cheaper prices to be able to a pay certain portions of the loan payments as soon as possible. This strategy has affected the living standards of such nations for decades. An example of this trend would go back to the 1970s and 80s, during the "Lost decade". The world experienced a debt crisis in which highly indebted countries, mostly developing Latin American nations were unable to repay their international debts. Mexico was the first to declare inability to pay off its debt, and the scandal spread to the rest of the world in a blink of an eye. To counter this, "structural adjustment ideology" (liberalization and privatization) was administrated, run by IMF and the World Bank. Long-term commercial debts were involved in this situation which was accumulated in the public sector. The Governments of such developing nations such as Mexico were not able to repay the money, so financial rescue operations were given priority to and became necessary. The crisis of 1980s was mostly caused by long-term loans that governments took from foreign forces / banks along with some official grants and loans that could have assisted out their nation's private sector.

Also by the beginning of 1980s the world economy faced recession, and the inflation days were over. USA's anti-inflation campaign was able to increase dollar's interest rate in the 1979; Therefore, debt service payments rose rapidly. Change in exchange rates was not the only reason behind the crisis though. As mentioned the world was facing a recession, so the demand for exports fell and lower terms of trade was faced. Highly in debt countries faced payment difficulties as the result and the crisis took place. Banks stopped lending out money and loans were terminated. That was where the World Bank and IMF started to financially rescue such nations from their debt problems. New lines of loans were introduced which later on led to the adjustment programs. The assumption was that the private sector would grow strong and would cover up for the debt payments if the role of the state was removed and industries were privatized. Instead such strategies led governments to drown further in debt. The crisis of 1980s was eventually solved though. One factor contributing in resolving the dilemma was the discovery of Latin American niche products in the global capitalism. The other solution to the crisis was mostly reduction of the amount of debts owed, or simply cancellation of debts or rescheduling the payment dates by the World Bank.

When countries are highly in debt, they are forced to cut off the money supply on health and other services in order to pay off the debt. Such behavior is not recommended since it has negative effect on the living standards of such nations. But on a second glance at the situation, the results of such actions seem to favor the western world, so not many people oppose against them. Prevention of such behavior would cost the advanced countries their positions in the global market along with the other benefits which they may obtain such as massive amounts of money they earn; Therefore, such systematic strategies are still being used in the globalization project.

When countries are in debt, they have limited options to choose from. The IMF and the World Bank tend to provide financial assistance to the nations seeking it. Their debt management plan is to apply a neoliberalism economic ideology in order to retrieve the money loaned. They have come up with structural adjustment plans such as "liberalization" of the economy and resource extraction / export-oriented open markets. They have minimized the role of the state and the have encouraged privatization. The protectionism over domestic industries is revoked. In some cases even currencies are devalued. Even at times, EPZs are constructed and introduced which leads to deregulations, while the standards are reduced or removed. The impact of such conditions on the poor countries could keep them in debt forever, leaving them dependent on the developed countries. Such behavior towards the poor nations leaves them with no options except for raising more money through more exports, even though they may not be ready to enter the global market yet. In this situation, when a country's insolvency is high, they may apply for another loan after another. This leads us to observe price wars on a large-scale. The insecurity also leads the poor regions to sell off their resources for cheaper. In such a stage, inspection of the situation reveals that high numbers of exports are also done in order to keep the currencies stable and earn foreign exchange which would help to pay off the debts. The results of such actions leave the government facing such disasters such as social unrest, decrease in the labor value and even depreciation of capital flow. In the worst case, such nations' economies collapse and the poor country remains poor, or even becomes poorer.

One of the effects of structural adjustment programs on the developing countries is the increase of their exports. Usually commodities and raw materials are exported by the poor nations in such situations. This would lead them to lose out in the global business market when they export such commodities (that are cheaper in comparison to finished goods which they'll end up importing). Also these nations are effectively blocked or denied from industrial capital and real technology transfer; Therefore, not only they lose their raw materials, they do not have the technology to make domestic products so so they'll end up importing rather expensive finished products from other nations (due to the added labor costs to make the product from those commodities that They, themselves have sold for cheap). In general, this leads in a low turnover of money for the nation and the country loses cash. The factors mentioned are some of the main reasons that differentiate between developed independent economies and poor dependent regions. The former winner of the Nobel Prize for Economics and a well-known professor at the Columbia University – USA, Joseph Stiglitz talks about the structural adjustment programs as the following: "The World Bank, at the time of frustration, hands every minister of any Poor country the same four-step program described as the following:

1. Privatization. Some politicians are corrupt; Therefore, they go ahead with some state sell-offs: "Rather than object to the sell-offs of state industries, they use the World Bank's demands to silence local critiques-happily flogged their electricity and water companies. 'You could see their eyes Widen 'at the prospect of 10% commissions paid to Swiss bank accounts for simply shaving a few billion off the sale price of national assets. "

2. Capital market liberalization. Stiglitz talks about the capital flows which may ruin economies as being "predictable," and says that "when [the outflow of capital] happens, to seduce speculators into returning a nation's own capital funds, the IMF demands these nations raise interest rates to 30 50% and 80%. "

3. Market-based pricing. "A fancy term for rising prices on food, water and cooking gas which leads, predictably, to Step-Three-and-a-Half: what Stiglitz calls, 'The IMF riot.' After such bloody riots, foreign corporations … can then pick off remaining assets, such as the odd mining concession or port, at fire sale prices. "

4. Free trade. "As in the nineteenth century, Europeans and Americans today are kicking down barriers to sales in Asia, Latin American and Africa while barricading our own markets against the Third World's agriculture, under the guiding hands of IMF structural 'assistance.' These adjustments have made. Africa's income drop by 23%. "

Seems like the well industrialized countries are forcing open markets on the poor nations, and these attempts are not helping the global market to develop much; Instead the rich countries are gaining access to gather cheap raw materials while they are selling off cheap products for higher prices in the poorer regions, making up false promises of their aid and assistance in economic development for such areas instead.

This report indicates that some global institutions such as the World Bank encourage the growth of EPZs since it helps them dominate the countries that are in debt. Although EPZs eliminate the trade barriers and allow countries to exchange goods and money more freely in the global market, they also allow IMF, World Bank and such institutions to gain power on a larger scale. Such actions appear to be problematic. Especially since exports of the poor nations are increased in huge amounts while they do not tend to benefit the nations as they are intended to. These exports must become cheaper because of all the loans and debts that the poor have collected over time, to assist the nations to pay off their debts. As a part of structural adjustment programs, the poor regions are globalized against their will and are being used by the advanced nations for their needs. In the conclusion, this kind of scenario benefits the western world and that is why the governing institutions in the globalization project encourage the growth of such acts. They also tend to show their support for the expansion of globalization ideas such as creation of export zones.

5 Principles For Debt Management

Debt Management – 5 Principles to help you get your debt under control!

Introduction

It has been increasingly difficult to get credit these day, whether you're looking for a car loan, credit card, or even a home loan. So managing your debt, and having a good credit score is very important. No longer are lenders handing out zero down and no interest loans. Credit card offers these days are reserved for those with good to excellent credit.

BusinessWeek says that total household debt in the US was more than 100% of our disposable annual income last year. The average person has more than $ 8000 in credit card debt.

The bottom line is that our personal debt is growing at an alarming rate. You can now charge your fast food meals at many restaurants, paying interest for years on something you consumed in one sitting. Many people have taken steps to address their debt problems, including consolidating debt to lower interest rate cards, or to home equity loans, or at worst case the dreaded "B" word, Bankruptcy.

5 Principles of Debt Management

1. Create an accurate assessment of your debt situation.
Make a list, chart or whatever you're most comfortable with, of all your debts. Be sure and include the amounts, interest rates, and expiration dates (especially on any no-interest for ## days type loans). Be sure and note any old accounts that you've got "laying around", such as that department store credit account that you opened to get the 15% discount.

You can now get a free credit report online. You should make sure that you've got a credit report and FICO score from each of the 3 national credit bureaus: Experian, Equifax, and TransUnion. The FTC advises monitoring your CREDIT REPORT activity ON ALL 3 BUREAUS. Under a new Federal law, you have the right to receive a free copy of your credit report once every 12 months from each of the three nationwide consumer reporting companies. AnnualCreditReport.com allows you to request a free credit file disclosure (ie. Credit Report) once every 12 months from each of the nationwide consumer credit reporting companies. This free credit report will not include your credit score, but it does give you a consolidated list of your debts, a record of requests for your credit history, and a summary of your rights under the Fair Credit Reporting Act.

Once you've gotten your free credit report, you also need to get your Credit Score. You can get your Credit Score, along with daily 3 bureau credit monitoring and other great services from FreeCreditScore.com.

2. Make a budget and stick to it!
Making a budget helps keep from increasing your debt, while you're trying to pay it down. Be specific and detailed in your budgeting. Except for emergencies, you should only be spending what is accounted for in your budget. Some people have found it helpful to keep a 30 day log of their spending. Carry a little notebook, or some index cards with you, and write down everything you spend each day. You'll probably be amazed at how much money you spend on things you want, and do not really need. The small things, such as that $ 3 cup of coffee every day, can slowly eat away at your finances. This will help keep you from getting further in debt. Your budget should define how much money you'll send to each of your creditors monthly and how much you need for bills, and how much is left for discretionary spending. Try limiting your discretionary spending to things you can buy with "pocket cash". This may be hardest thing you've ever done, but you will not get further in debt if you only spend what you have.

3. Pay off the debts one by one.
Maintain minimum payments to the rest of the debts, but pick the debt with the highest interest rate, and send extra payments to pay it off. There is a proven psychological benefit to being able to take a debt off of your list.

4. Consider debt consolidation or debt restructuring and possibly refinancing your home mortgage.
Lower your credit card debt by 70% by consolidating. With interest rates down, it also may be time to refinance your home mortgage loan and cut your monthly payment. You can get free mortgage loan quotes at LowCostLending. When you refinance, make sure closing costs and other fees do not outweigh the savings in your monthly payment. Another option is to get a Home Equity Loan. Home equity loans are good because they allow you to deduct the interest on your income taxes. Remember though, new credit is not a license to incur new or more debts. Once you've transferred a balance by consolidating, or refinancing, do not add more charges to the old account. If you've got a lot of open accounts, you may want to close some of them, but you should not necessarily always cancel the old account. Having a good payment history with a few existing accounts can be better for your credit record than many taken and new accounts.

5. If necessary, get help.
You may choose a credit counseling service, or debt counseling and debt help service to help with each step of your debt solution. Credit counselors can add accountability to your debt solution, and also serve as a source of encouragement. They are used to dealing with people with bad credit or poor credit, and can help you create a custom debt solution. They can suggest money lenders that might be more willing to make a loan to someone with a lower credit rating. Once you start reducing your debts without incurring new ones, you'll start to see your credit score rise.

By following these simple principles, you should be able to get your debt under control, reduce it, and eventfully eliminate it.

Importance of Supply Chain Management in Modern Businesses

Supply Chain Management (SCM) as defined by Tom McGuffog is "Maximizing added value and reducing total cost across the entire trading process through focusing on speed and certainty of response to the market." Due to globalization and ICT, SCM has become a tool for companies to compete effectively either at a local level or at a global scale. SCM has become a necessity especially for manufacturing industry when it comes to deliver products at a competitive cost and at a higher quality than their competitors. Here are some of the reason SCM has become important to today's manufacturing industry: –

Competitive Edge through Core Competencies

Today's business climate has rapidly changed and has become more competitive as ever in nature. Businesses now not only need to operate at a lower cost to compete, it must also develop its own core competencies to distinguish itself from competitors and stand out in the market. In creating the competitive edge, companies need to divert its resources to focus on what they do best and outsource the process and task that is not important to the overall objective of the company. SCM has allowed company to rethink their own operation and structure it so that they can focus on its core competencies and outsource processes that are not within the core competencies of the company. Due to the current competitive market, it is the only way for a company to survive. The strategy on applying SCM will not only impact their market positioning but also strategic decision on choosing the right partners, resources and manpower. By focusing on core competencies also will allow the company to create niches and specialization of core areas. As stated in the Blue Ocean Strategy outlined by Chan Kim, in order to create a niche for competitive advantage, companies must look at the big picture of the whole process, and figuring out which process can be reduce, eliminate, raise and create.

As an example stated by Chan Kim, the Japanese automotive industries capitalize on its resources to build small and efficient cars. The Japanese automotive industries gain competitive edge by utilizing their supply chain to maximize their core competencies and position itself in a niche market. The strategy works and now Toyota Motor Corporation, a Japanese company, is considered to be the number one auto car maker in the world beating Ford and General Motors of the United States.

Value Advantage

SCM has allowed business nowdays to not just have productivity advantage alone but also on value advantage. As Martin Christopher in his book, Logistics and Supply Chain Management: Strategies for Reducing Cost and Improving Service 'states,' Productivity advantage gives a lower cost profile and the value advantage gives the product or offering a differential 'plus' over competitive offerings.' Through maximizing added value and also reduce the cost in the same time, more innovation can be added to the product and process. Mass manufacturing offers offers productivity but through effective supply chain management, mass customization can be achieved. With mass customization, customers are given the value advantage through flexible manufacturing and customized adaptation. Product life cycles also can be improved through effective use of SCM. Value advantage also changes the norm of traditional offerings that is 'one-size-fits-all.' Through SCM, the more accepted offerings by the industry to the consumers would be a variety of products catered to different market segments and customers preferences.

As an example, the Toyota Production System operated in Toyota, evaluates its supply chain and determines what value added activities and what is not value added activities. Non added value activities are considered to be 'Muda' or waste and therefore must be eliminated. Such non added value activities are overproduction, waiting, unnecessary transport, over processing, excess inventory, unnecessary movement, defects and unused employee creativity. The steps taken to eliminate waste are through Kaizen, Kanban, Just-in-time and also push-pull production to meet actual customer's demands. The Toyota Production System revolutionize the Supply Chain Management towards becoming a leaner supply chain system that is more agile and flexible towards meeting the end users demands.

What Is an AGO Oil Product or Automatic Gas Oil? Finding Authentic AGO Petroleum Supply / Supplier

A recent survey conducted by this writer on the Internet for a quick, snap shot sense of the subject matter, immediately revealed that there was a state of relatively scanty knowledge of, or information about, this particular refined petroleum product called the AGO, among international oil Dealers and suppliers. In deed, in one rather remarkable instance involving a popular 'Ask for Answers' online discussion portal, one reader expressed the question, soliciting information from the readers as to what was / was 'the meaning' of the petroleum term AGO, among three Other refined petroleum products, which he went on to list – DPK, PMS, JET A1. There was just one response – a response that has stuck the same for 5 years since. Oddly enough, however, of the 4 oil products that the answerer named, the answerer was exactly accurate in the definition he proffered on three of those. But, on ONLY one of them, the AGO product, the answer given by the answerer was somewhat slowly off, as he got the definition of the product as meaning 'Automotive Gas & Oils.'

So, first, we start with this basic question : What is AGO Oil Product, or the Automotive Gas Oil?

What the AGO Oil Product Is

The term AGO, which specifically stands for the Automotive Gas Oil, is the name given to the fuel type that's used by road vehicles (cars, trucks, buses, vans, and the like) that are powered by DIESEL engines . That is, in a word, it is the diesel vehicle engine fuel. In terms of how the fuel gets to be produced or manufactured, the fuel is the type that, in the distillation and processing of crude oil work, is obtained in the mid-boiling range of that process. Related fuels which are used for non-road applications including off-road diesel engines, such as the Industrial Gas Oils (IGOs), are obtained from the same 'fraction' of the crude oil barrel.

Technically speaking, the term Automotive Gas Oil (AGO) is the technical name used by the oil industry in describing this particular fuel. However, in terms of the ordinary consumers in the market, the term 'automated diesel fuel,' or just plain 'diesel,' is the more commonly used and more widespread name that the ordinary consumer uses in describing this fuel. Petroleum products are usually grouped into THREE categories : the 'light distillates' (LPG, gasoline, naphtha), the 'middle' distillates (kerosene, diesel), and the 'heavy' distillates and residualum (heavy fuel oil, lubricating oils, wax , Asphalt). This classification is based primarily on the way crude oil is distilled and separated into fractions (called distillates and residualuum). Within the oil industry, the generic oil industry name that's used to describe gasoils – which include both AGO and IGO – fall under the 'Middle Distillates' category, meaning those kinds of refined oil products that 'boiling range' fall in the MIDDLE, that Is, between those whose range fall in the higher levels or in the lower levels. (See the chart below). As you can read see in the Chart below, at a Boiling Range of between 520 to 650, the AGO falls right in the middle range of most categories of the refined oil products.

The Market & Primary Uses of the AGO oil Product Among Its Customers

AGO is used in two main types of vehicles: 1) the heavy-duty vehicles, such as trucks and buses, and 2) the light-duty vehicles, such as vans and passenger cars. In most countries, including the USA as well as the developing countries, the heavy-duty vehicles make up the bulk of the market for AGO. In a country such as Japan, there is a significant light-duty vehicle sector, but it is in Europe that the demand for AGO from this sector is highest, with more than one-third coming from the passenger cars and other light vehicles. Customer requirements between the two types of fuel usage differ to some extent. Diesel engines are widely used in heavy-duty vehicles. Such vehicles are frequently operated in fleets and are re-fueled centrally with the fuel delivered directly from the supplier. In the light-duty vehicle sector, recent advances in engine design now also allow light-duty diesel engines to compete with gasoline engines in terms of the performance standards. Light-duty vehicles are generally re-fueled through retail outlets. In any case, whether it is in the light-duty sector or in the heavy-duty sector, in both sectors the customer will generally be looking for the fuel that provides economy, power, reliability and environmental acceptability.

Use As Car Fuel

Diesel-powered vehicles, such as AGO-powered vehicles, generally have a better fuel economy than equivalent gasoline engines and produce less greenhouse gas emissions. Their greater economy is due to the higher energy per-liter content of diesel fuel and the intrinsic efficiency of the diesel engine. True, petrodiesel's higher density results in higher greenhouse gas emissions per liter compared to gasoline. However, the modern diesel-engine automobiles have a 20-40% better fuel economy, and this well offsets the higher per-liter emissions of greenhouse gases, while a diesel-powered vehicle emits 10-20 percent less greenhouse gas than comparable gasoline vehicles . Biodiesel-powered diesel engines offer substantially improved emission reductions compared to petrodiesel or gasoline-powered engines, while retaining most of the fuel economy advantages over conventional gasoline-powered automobiles.

How Crude Oil Fractions Are Processed Into Refined Oil Products, Including AGO and Other Products

How do we get to have refined petroleum products, of which a product like AGO is one? Put simply, it is out of the refining processing (ie, out of the 'refining') of crude oil that many other usable products – products that we generally refer to as refined or finished petroleum products – are produced. Meaning products such as gasoil, gasoline, kerosene, AGO, etc. The process of oil 'refining' or processing is a very complex one, and involves both chemical reactions and physical separations. The substance that's called Crude Oil is composed of thousands of different 'molecules,' and according to chemical engineers and molecular experts, it would be nearly impossible to isolate every molecule that exists in crude oil and thebyy make finished products from each molecule.

Consequently, the way chemists and engineers deal with this problem, is simply by them isolating the mixtures (also called 'fractions') of molecules according to what is known as the mixture's "boiling point range." For example, molecules for the gasoline product may boil within the 'range' of 90 to 400 oF. While the range at which the home heating oil product's molecular mixes could boil might be from 500 to 650 oF, and so on. For purposes of convenience and simplification, each mixture or fraction is assigned a specific name to identify it.

The following chart illustrates the 'boiling range' and name of the petroleum fractions.

Fraction

Boiling Range, oF.

Butanes and lighter

<90

Light straight run gasoline (LSR)

Or light naphtha (LN)

90-190

Naphtha or heavy naphtha (HN)

190-380

Kerosene

380-520

Distillate or atmospheric gas oil (AGO)

520-650

Residua

650+

Vacuum gas oil (VGO)

650-1000

Vacuum Residua

1000 +

In sum, refined products are products that are produced by isolating the mixtures or fractions of molecules that come from the raw crude oil, and combining them, along with those from various refining processing units. These fractions are 'blended' or mixed to satisfy specific properties that are important in allowing the refined product to perform in accordance with the specifications or requirements that are designed by or in an engine, in terms of ease in handling, reducing the undesirable emissions produced When the product is burned, etc

FINDING OR OBTAINING A SUPPLY OF THE AGO

Simply stated, the KEY term and task here is finding an authentic AGO oil product supply or supplier. Or an AGO buyer, as the case may be. Why? This is simply because, today, in the international refined oil products trading market, particularly in the so-called "secondary" market, probably the single most fundamental and most difficult common problem which legitimate dealers who seek to find reliable suppliers have, is often Not so much finding a party who will claim heaven and earth that he / she has the AGO oil product to sell and can supply you the product. Or that he can buy one from you, as the case may be. BUT finding such a party who is actually AUTHENTIC & LEGITIMATE, and can actually DELIVER on the product.

MOST PEOPLE WHO SAY THEY'RE SUPPLIERS OF PRODUCT PROVIDE NO VERIFIED OR VERIFIABLE PROOFS OR SOURCES

A well-established reality and a given today, is that in world oil deals involving trading in the crude oil and refined petroleum products, particularly in the so-called international "secondary" market, probably the single most fundamental and most difficult common problem which Legitimate buyers frequently confront today, is the problem of the genuineness and authenticity of the supplier of product and its ability to deliver on the sales offer he presents. Refined petroleum products, such as AGO, D2, Mazut, Jet fuel, etc., are certainly not immune or exempt from such an endemic problem that seems to plague the entire secondary market oil trade industry, but rather are, in deed, right in the Middle of it.

It's a problem which central source can simply be summed up in one word – namely, that not unlike most persons or entities who claim via the Internet to be oil or petroleum products suppliers or "sellers," most who claim to be suppliers of AGO, As well (or of similar refined oil products, such as the diesel gasoil or Russian D2, Mazut, Jet fuels, and the like), either provide NO proofs or evidence at all of that, or provide proofs or evidence that are often absolutely meaningless Because they're unverified and unverifiable. That is, for the serious or credible Internet petroleum buyer involved in the world oil deals and seriously intent on finding duly verifiable authentic AGO oil product supply or supplier, there are generally just NO such supply or suppliers of the product in the so-called " Secondary "market.

Most such serious or genuine AGO buyers (or suppliers, as well, as the case may be) seeking to find equally genuine AGO suppliers (or sellers seeking buyers, when applicable) in the international secondary market, find that the problem is particularly acute and Compounded by the fact that almost all "sellers" (or suppliers), or their brokers or intermediaries, that one meets on the Internet, are essentially unknown, unestablished dealers who lack any name, reputation or identity, or any known location on the planet , And lack any record or history of past performance in doing the business. In consequence, a serious AGO buyer, for example, is often being asked – and actually being realistically expected – to, in effect, merely take "the word" of some dubious, anonymous, unidentified and apparently unidentifiable, phantom "seller" or " Supplier "for it, with no credential supporting evidence provided, and no verification or authentication whatever of the Internet seller's offer or claims.

In sum, he's being asked – and actually being expected – to risk, or rather, to gamble away, his hard-earned mini-fortune of some hundreds of millions of dollars merely on such a "word."! This, it should be added, is being expected of the buyer in a business environment and climate that is patently awash in fraud and a network of notorious scammers worldwide!

WHERE TO BUY AGO OIL PRODUCT, HOW DO YOU FIND THE SUPPLIERS?

Clearly, then, if you are a real buyer of product seriously intent on finding authentic diesel AGO oil product supply or suppliers (or those of any similar refined oil products, such as the diesel gasoil or Russian D2, Mazut, Jet fuels, and the Like) – meaning one that is duly verified and verifiable – probably the most critical, vital, even life-or-death task for you, is that you had better be sure to develop, in some way or manner, a skilled and effective strategy For finding, vetting, selecting out and authentic suppliers that can provide you reliable steady supply of the product, and which will be scam-free, assured, and long-lasting.

How?

Quite oddly enough, the answer to that question is actually not that complicated or complex. For our limited purposes here, suffice it simply to just say, that there is, in fact, such a methodology, tool and strategy for doing just that long in practical use in the industry. Long in practical use by knowledgeable, experienced and trained eyes and experts, and the successful traders, in the business. If you are, yourself, in fact a provable legitimate trader or authentic practitioner of the petroleum trade (assuming you are actually one) operating in the secondary market, and are really serious about finding and securing authentic and reliable AGO oil product supply or supplier, Or about finding and securing a buyer of equivalent caliber for the product, as the case may be, that's actually read within your reach. There's just really one crucial proviso, only – namely, PROVIDING that you're equipped with the requisite knowledge, skill, training, tool, methodology and practical experience, by which to undertake the whole process of doing so.

To be sure, true, in today's world oil deals of the international secondary market, including sourcing for AGO product, which is seriously an Internet-dominated world, and is for the most part prevalently awash in fake dealers and scammers, finding duly verified authentic Petroleum or automotive gas oil product supply, suppliers and sellers of such caliber (or buyers, just as well), is not ordinary or commonplace. Nor is it at all an easy task to attain. It is, however, by no means impracticable, nor are such suppliers non-existent. Far, far from it! Quite to the contrary, such suppliers abound. It's only that you just have to search around for such suppliers (or the legitimate buyers, as well, as the case may be) more diligently and skillfully and in the right places from the right sources, and know precisely how and where. That requires, unavoidably, supreme industry knowledge, skills set, training, know-how, connections, precious time expenditure, and experience.

FOR A FOLLOW UP

YOU WANT TO FOLLOW UP ON HOW TO FIND AUTHENTIC AGO OIL PRODUCT SUPPLY OR SUPPLIERS, OR EVEN BUYERS, THAT ARE ALREADY VERIFIED, CONFIRMED AND VERIFIABLE AND SCAM-FREE? Please see the link provided in the author's Resource Box below.

How Has the Internet Impected Market Research?

Market research is the way that companies gather information about their customers, competitors, and the effectiveness of their marketing campaigns for those of you who are wondering what it is. In recent years the internet has had a huge affect on the way that companies have been conducting their market research through the various methods that are available for them to use. Companies know that almost everyone and their dog get on the internet for one reason or another and this is a great way for them to be able to gather information about what their consumers want as well as keep an eye on what their competitors are doing. The internet is also a great way for companies to test and try different marketing campaigns before they spend millions of dollars on them. There are a few different ways that the Internet has had an effect on the way that market research is conducted.

One thing that companies are able to do is called keyword research. Conducting research on different keywords is how businesses find out what words and phrases their customers are using when they are searching for the products that they are selling. This is a great advantage because it allows the company to focus on certain words and phrases that will gain them popularity. Also, if the company has a website they will be able to move their website into a better position by building links back to their site that focus on these specific keywords.

Companies can also take surveys and put up polls on different topics that will help them to get the opinion of the consumers that buy their products. This helps the company to know what they are doing right so that they can do more of it and it also helps them to gather information that they can use to make their customers happier.

A company can also easily check out what their competition is doing by looking them up. They will be able to see where their competition is getting backlinks from, and they will be able to see what methods their completion is using to be able to gain more customers. There are a lot of different tools that a company can use to be able to find out what their competition is doing on the internet very quickly and easily. One of the biggest advantages that a company has when they use the internet for market research is testing different advertising campaigns to find out which one works the best. There are a lot of different ways to advertise both online and offline and companies pay a lot of money each year to advertise their business. By doing their market research online they will be able to find out which campaign will bring them the most success before they pay out all of the money to run it.

Over the past few years the internet has dramatically affected the way that market research is being conducted. It will have an even greater impact as we move forward into the future. It will be very necessary for every company to have knowledge of Internet Marketing so that they will be able to quickly and effectively do their research online.