Monthly Archives: April 2017

Aircraft Structural Components

The major aircraft structures are wings, fuselage, and empennage. The primary flight control surfaces, located on the wings and empennage, are ailerons, elevators, and rudder. These parts are connected by seams, called joints.

All joints constructed using rivets, bolts, or special fasteners are lap joints. Fasteners can not be used on joints in which the materials to be joined do not overlap – for example, butt, tee and edge joints. A fayed edge is a type of lap joint made when two metal surfaces are butted up against one another in such a way as to overlap.

Internal aircraft parts are manufactured in four ways: Milling, stamping, bending, and extruding. The metal of a milled part is transformed from cast to wrought by first shaping and then either chemically etching or grinding it. A stamped part is annealed, placed in a forming press, and then re-heat treated.

Bent parts are made by sheet metal mechanisms using the bend permission and layout procedures. An extrusion is an aircraft part which is formed by forging metal through a preshaped die. The resulting wrought forms are used as spars, stringers, longerers, or channels. In order for metal to be extruded, bent, or formed, it must first be made malleable and ductile by annealing. After the forming operation, the metal is re-heat treated and age hardened.

Airbus Wings

Here in the UK and in particular at the Airbus facility in North Wales, our expertise is in the manufacture of aircraft wings. Aircraft wings have to be strong enough to withstand the positive forces of flight as well as the negative forces of landing. Metal wings are of two types: Semicantilever and full cantilever. Semicantilever, or braced, wings are used on light aircraft. They are externally supported by struts or flying wires which connect the wing spar to the fuselage. A full cantilever wing is usually made of stronger metal. It requires no external bracing or support. The skin carries part of the wing stress. Parts common to both wing designs are spars, compression ribs, former ribs, stringers, stress plates, gussets. Wing tips and wing skins.

Airbus at Broughton employs more than 5,000 people, mostly in manufacturing, but also in engineering and support functions such as procurement and finance.

Wing Spars

Two or more spars are used in the construction of a wing. They carry the main longitudinal -butt to tip – load of the wing. Both the spar and a compression rib connect the wing to the fuselage.

Compression Ribs

Compression ribs carry the main load in the direction of flight, from leading edge to trailing edge. On some aircraft the compression rib is a structural piece of tubing separating two main spars. The main function of the compression rib is to absorb the force applied to the spar when the aircraft is in flight.

Former Ribs

A former rib, which is made from light metal, attaches to the stringers and wing skins to give the wing its aerodynamic shape. Former ribs can be classified as nose ribs, trailing edge ribs, and mid ribs running fore and aft between the front and rear spar on the wing. Formers are not considered primary structural members.

Stringers

Stringers are made of thin sheets of preformed extruded or hand-formed aluminum alloy. They run front to back along the fuselage and from wing butt to wing tip. Riveting the wing skin to both the stringer and the ribs gives the wing additional strength.

Stress Plates

Stress plates are used on wings to support the weight of the fuel tank. Some stress plates are made of thick metal and some are of thin metal corrugated for strength. Stress plates are usually held in place by long rows of machine screws, with self-locking nuts, that thread into specifically mounted channels. The stress-plate channeling is riveted to the spars and compression ribs.

Gussets

Gussets, or gusset plates, are used on aircraft to join and reinforse intersecting structural members. Gussets are used to transfer stresses from one member to another at the point where the members join.

Wing Tips

The wing tip, the outboard end of the wing, has two purposes: To aerodynamically smooth out the wing tip air flow and to give the wing a finished look.

Wing Skins

Wing skins cover the internal parts and provide for a smooth air flow over the surface of the wing. On full cantilever wings, the skins carry stress. However, all wing skins are to be rated as primary structures wherever they are on braced or full cantilever surfaces.

Fuselage Assemblies.

The largest of the aircraft structural components, there are two types of metal aircraft fuselages: Full monocoque and semimonocoque. The full monocoque fuselage has fewer internal parts and a more highly stressed skin than the semimonocoque fuselage, which uses internal bracing to obtain its strength.

The full monocoque fuselage is generally used on smaller aircraft, because the stressed skin eliminates the need for stringers, former rings, and other types of internal bracing, thus lightening the aircraft structure.

The semimonocoque fuselage derives its strength from the following internal parts: Bulkheads, longerers, keel beams, drag struts, body supports, former rings, and stringers.

Bulkheads

A bulkhead is a structural partition, usually located in the fuselage, which normally runs perpendicular to the keel beam or longerers. A few examples of bulkhead locations are where the wing spars connect into the fuselage, where the cabin pressurization domes are secured to the fuselage structure, and at cockpit passenger or cargo entry doors.

Longerons And Keel Beams

Longerons and keel beams perform the same function in an aircraft fuselage. They both carry the bulk of the load traveling fore and aft. The keel beam and longerons, the strongest sections of the airframe, tie its weight to other aircraft parts, such as powerplants, fuel cells, and the landing gears.

Drag Struts And Other Fittings

Drag struts and body support fittings are other primary structural members. Drag struts are used on large jet aircraft to tie the wing to the fuselage center section. Body support fittings are used to support the structures which make up bulkhead or floor truss sections.

Former rings and fuselage stringers are not primary structural members. Former rings are used to give shape to the fuselage. Fuselage stringers running fore and aft are used to tie in the bulkheads and
Former rings.

Aircraft Empennage Section

The empennage is the tail section of an aircraft. It consist of a horizontal stabilizer, elevator, vertical stabilizer and rudder. The conventional empennage section contains the same kind of parts used in the construction of a wing. The internal parts of the stabilizers and their flight controls are made with spars, ribs, stringers and skins.

Also, tail sections, like wings, can be externally or internally braced.

Horizontal Stabilizer And Elevator

The horizontal stabilizer is connected to a primary control surface, ie, the elevator. The elevator causes the nose of the aircraft to pitch up or down. Together, the horizontal stabilizer and elevator provide stability about the horizontal axis of the aircraft. On some aircraft the horizontal stabilizer is made movable by a screw jack assembly which allows the pilot to trim the aircraft during flight.

Vertical Stabilizer And Rudder

The vertical stabilizer is connected to the aft end of the fuselage and gives the aircraft stability about the vertical axis. Connected to the vertical stabilizer is the rudder, the purpose of which is to turn the aircraft about its vertical axis.

Ailerons

Elevators and rudders are primary flight controls in the tail section. Ailerons are primary flight controls connected to the wings. Located on the outboard portion of the wing, they allow the aircraft to turn about the longitudinal axis.

When the right aileron is moved forward, the left one goes down, then causing the aircraft to roll to the right. Because this action creates a tremendous force, the ailerons must be constructed in such a way as to withstand it.

Flight controls other than the three primary ones are needed on high-performance aircraft. On the wings of a wide-body jet, for example, there are as many as thirteen flight controls, including high and low-speed ailerons, flaps, and spoilers.

Flaps And Spoilers

Wing flaps increase the lift for take-off and landing. Inboard and outboard flaps, on the trailing edge of the wing, travel from full up, which is neutral aerodynamic flow position, to full down, causing air to pile up and create lift. Leading edge flaps – Krueger flaps and variable-camber flaps – increase the wing chord size and then allow the aircraft to take off or land on a shorter runway. Spoilers, located in the center section span-wise, serve two purposes. They assist the high-speed ailerons in turning the aircraft during flight, and they are used to kill the aerodynamic lift during landing by spreading open on touchdown.

Trim Tabs

Connected to the primary flight controls are devices called trim tabs. They are used to make fine adjustments to the flight path of an aircraft. Trim tabs are constructed like wings or ailerons, but are
Considerably smaller.

Fiscal Policy and the Challenging Economic Environment

In the face of the increasing alarming global economic crisis, the Philippine government, as the institutional embodiment of the sovereign authority of the Filipino people, is challenged to fulfill its constitutional mandate to protect the general welfare.

Debates over what government must do to save the economy are happening almost everywhere, from public offices and school classrooms to wet markets and barber shops. It is argued that it is through its fiscal administrative power that government attempts to resuscitate the dying economy.

Public fiscal administration generally reiterates the formulation, implementation and evaluation of policies and decisions on taxation and revenue administration; Resource allocation, budgeting and public expenditure; Public borrowings and debt management; And accounting and auditing (Briones 1983: 2).

The hope of seeing real economic progress seems to be dependent on the success of the whole fiscal policy process. Fiscal policy derives its meaning and direction from the people’s aspirations and goals which are said to be embodied in the Medium Term Philippine Development Plan.

“The basic task of the Medium Term Philippine Development Plan … is to fight poverty and build prosperity for the greatest number of the Filipino people. We must open up economic opportunities, maintain socio-political stability, and promote good stewardship-all to Ensure a better quality of life for all our citizens. We will focus on strategic measures and activities that will spur economic growth and create jobs. This can only be done with a common purpose to put our economic house back in working order “(Arroyo 2004 ).

But the big question is: how does government carry out its fiscal administrative function to really cushion the Filipinos from the adverse effects of the onrushing global financial crisis?

The Fiscal Policy as a Political Process

Lying at the heart of public fiscal administration are the fiscal policies shaped by the socio-economic and political interaction of internal and external policy environment. Internal policy environment includes the decision-making agencies of government such as Congress, the Office of the President and its support agencies, the National Economic and Development Authority, the Department of Budget and Management, the Department of Finance, and the Commission on Audit, Among others. Internal environment also includes the private sector, interest groups, non-government organizations and people’s organizations in the society.

The external policy environment, on the other hand, encompasses foreign interest groups composed of international financial institutions like the World Bank (WB), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the Asian Development Bank, among others. Moreover, external policy environment includes the international agreements and economic cooperation such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), World Trade Organization (WTO), Asia and the Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) ), The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), and institutions that extend Official Development Assistance (ODA), among others (Cuaresma 1996: 46).

Professor Leonor Briones of the UP National College of Public Administration and Governance claims that “these foreign interest groups prefer to maintain a low profile in local fiscal politics. They do not have to come out in the open anyway-the WB-IMF has regular consultations With Philippine officials due to the strength of the Philippine public debt; the MNC’s [multinational corporations] are represented by local dummies, and the foreign creditors by their Filipino proxies. In the open political contest, these foreign interest groups express their preferences by financially supporting Their politicians. Where the local technocrats and bureaucrats are more significant in fiscal policy administration, they attempt to influence their nomination and appointment. ” (Briones 1983: 97)

This only means that the financial health of the country is at the mercy of the international financial creditors and policy bodies that issue our fiscal prescription. While it is often argued by schools that the field of public administration must not be political in its very nature, fiscal administration as its sub-field is not free from political maneuvering as it is operating within the political system.

From the scholarly view of Professor Briones, fiscal policy has four major functions: (1) the allocation function, (2) the distribution function, (3) the stabilization function, and (4) the development function.

The major fiscal instrument in the allocation function of fiscal policy is the national budget. In general, a national budget is the financial plan of the government for a given fiscal year, which shows what its resources are, and how they will be generated and used over the fiscal period. The budget is the government’s key instrument for promoting its socio-economic objectives. The government budget also reiterates the income, expenditures and sources of borrowings of the national government that are used to achieve national objectives, strategies and programs.

In developing countries like the Philippines, gaps between the rich and the poor are insurmountable. Thus, distribution of income and wealth is a serious problem. The distribution function may have serious implications for tax and expenditure policies. Recently, a report came out saying that the Department of Finance (DOF) planned to jack up the sales tax or value added tax (VAT) to 15 percent from the current level of 12 percent to raise much-needed revenue to plug the country’s ballooning Budget deficit which hit a record P298.5 billion last year (Agcaoili 2010).

The report makes the fiscal debts even more heated as the issue of stability, another function of fiscal policy, is now the subject of concern. Often, government resorts to increasing taxes to have the means of public spending or avoid budget deficit. But it is known to many the myriad tradeoffs it can create.

People often hear in the news the fiscal plans created by government all in the name of “development,” another function of fiscal policy. Perhaps, this word is the most overused, if not abused, word in the political arena.

Development is multi-faceted. The word itself is nice to the ear. But it is a “very expensive commodity” in the words of Professor Briones. In order to translate development into reality, financing is, of course, needed. In harmony with other measures, fiscal policies are expected to generate resources in order to finance development activities (Briones 1983: 55). In loan-dependent countries like the Philippines, generating resources means borrowing more and paying even more.

Over one third of our national budget goes to debt servicing. With the widening fiscal deficit, the national government’s debt now amounts to P4.42 trillion, accounting for more than half of its GDP and more than three times the government revenues if creditors were to call the debts in. The Philippines relies heavily on domestic and foreign borrowings to bridge its fiscal gap, which is expected to hit a record P325 billion this year (abs-cbnNEWScom).

The Challenging Economic Environment

Borrow more. Tax more. Pay more. It is a vicious cycle. It is without doubt that the Philippines, the then mighty tiger in Asia, has transformed into a desperate pussycat roared by the giant financial institutions to which we are heavily indebted. The Filipino people became victims of immoral and debilitating conditionalities imposed by the IMF and the international financial oligarchy.

The economic situation becomes even more difficult as the world is facing what many economists describe as the worst economic crisis in history. The credit crisis in the US has accelerated the rate of financial meltdown all over the world, making the international lending institutions more eager than ever to force heavily indebed countries like the Philippines to extract a pound of flesh from their people. The national government’s total indentedness has ballooned as a result of sudden and sharp currency depreciation during this critical time of global economic uncertainties.

In response to minimizing the impact of the global economic downturn, the Philippine government embarks on measures aimed at stimulating positive performance in all sectors of society. Former Socioeconomic Sec. Ralph G. Recto, for example, proposed stimulus package intended to keep the economy afloat. As a consequence, Economic Resiliency Plan (ERP) was put in place to supposedly manage to sustain economic growth by fiscal policy adjustments along the implementation of pump-priming programs and vital projects and activities.

The former NEDA Chief simply argues that the government intends to battle the present crisis by increasing spending through what he calls stimulus package-a fiscal and monetary strategy that is very Keynesian in nature. The ERP basically entails “ensuring resources through better revenue collection; enhancement of cash liquidity, access to credit and low interest rates; and more effective spending. It seeks to ensure stable growth, save and create jobs, provide assistance to the most vulnerable sectors, Ensure low and stable prices, and improve competitiveness in preparation for the global economic rebound “(Recto 2009).

This stimulus package, however, is a mere pain reliever. It does not cure the cancer, which is the crisis itself. A major surgery operation, therefore, is needed.

Think out of the Box: A Fiscal Strategy for the General welfare

“There’s life after the IMF.”

These are the words of then President Nestor Kirchner of Argentina when he defied the predatory financial institutions that imposed belt-tightening measures on his people.

The newly elected Philippine President Noynoy Aquino must do the same. He must have the courage to disassociate himself from the deceivable legacy of “honor all debts” policy of his mother. The traditional government action plan for debt management such as bond exchanges, maximizing the use of ODA, guarantees for GOCCs, and more borrowings, will not create lasting economic growth.

The Philippines, as an independent nation, with all dignity and courage, must there declare a moratorium on foreign debt payments. This will allow our country enough time to rebuild and expand our productive physical economy.

Through this fiscal strategy, the country can channel huge amount of its annual budget, instead to debt servicing, towards effective educational system, efficient healthcare system, and sustainable scientific research centers focused on food production, health maintenance, and industry. Consequently, this will encourage real investment into agro-industrial and manufacturing sectors and ensure a genuine path towards development.

To seriously participate in the global effort to save the world’s economy, the Philippine government should join the growing worldwide call for a new financial system of fixed exchange rates. This new financial system is said to put an end to the financial tsunami hitting practically all nations in the world today. Proposals are made by the Governments of Italy, Argentina, Malaysia and a growing number of countries, institutions, statesmen and patriots aiming at changing the global financial structure based on the tradition of the Bretton Woods Agreement of 1945 (Philippine LaRouche Society 2004)

The issue of fiscal policy amid global crisis is indeed a very complex and thought-provoking issue. The crisis, which we now face as a nation, requires intelligent understanding of the problem and courageous act to do what is right for the benefit of the present and future Filipino generations.

Common Health and Safety Hazards in Factories

Just like elsewhere in the western world, In the UK as well the government has prescribed some safety regulations that have to be adhered to by any workplace. Protection against health and safety hazards may even extend to the families of people employed in hazardous occupations. In the European Union, member countries have enforced responsibilities to ensure that the legal basics related to occupational health and safety hazards is followed in any case.

Hazard is something that can cause harm if not controlled. A risk is the probability of the output which will occur if harm occurs. The income can be defined as the result of an uncontrolled hazard. Risk analysis is associated to identify risks, evaluate the risk, and identify and prioritize the required actions.

Workplace safety hazards are normally grouped into environmental hazards, environmental agents, physical agents, physical hazards, chemical agents, and biological hazards. Environmental hazards typically include asphyxiation and dehydration. Environmental agents include heat and cold stress. Physical hazards include collision, tripping, falling, and electricity. Physical agents include noise, vibration, and lighting.

Other hazards are mechanical hazards, biological hazards, and chemical agents. Depending on the type of work that is done in a factory, safety precautions have to be employed. Office workers can be affected by a flu spread by a co-worker, and a factory worker can receive serious injury because of an accident. Common health and safety hazards can be avoided by taking necessary precautions. But, even with all necessary precautions accidents do occur.

To minimize safety hazards, workers are issued safety goggles, helmets, gloves, safety shoes, and coveralls. For avoiding health hazards, a virus free and well ventilated environment is provided. Clean drinking water, clean and safe kitchen and eating areas are maintained. Some factories require medical checkups of the employees on a regular basis.

There are some basic health and safety rules that all factory owners are bound to follow. There are special rules for factories that use hazardous material. These include installation of safety showers and eye wash stands. Special safety clothes may also be required by law to be provided to the employees.

The common safety and health laws that factories in the UK have to follow can be found in the local factory laws. They may differ slightly depending on the local county laws. Health laws cover providing a well ventilated, clean, and dust free environment. Safety laws require wearing of proper safety equipment as required by the type of job being performed. If it is a factory where there is a probability of falling objects striking someone, then safety helmets must be worn. If the floors are wet or slippery, proper safety shoes must be worn.

The basic rules are very general in nature as they encompass the entire business spectrum. But there are further classifications that are factory dependent. If the factory handles harmful chemicals, then the safety laws are going to be different from a factory that does packaging. One single rule can not cover all factories' safety and health regulations. In most cases, the rules regarding safety and health can also be quite vague.

5 Principles For Debt Management

Debt Management – 5 Principles to help you get your debt under control!

Introduction

It has been increasingly difficult to get credit these day, whether you're looking for a car loan, credit card, or even a home loan. So managing your debt, and having a good credit score is very important. No longer are lenders handing out zero down and no interest loans. Credit card offers these days are reserved for those with good to excellent credit.

BusinessWeek says that total household debt in the US was more than 100% of our disposable annual income last year. The average person has more than $ 8000 in credit card debt.

The bottom line is that our personal debt is growing at an alarming rate. You can now charge your fast food meals at many restaurants, paying interest for years on something you consumed in one sitting. Many people have taken steps to address their debt problems, including consolidating debt to lower interest rate cards, or to home equity loans, or at worst case the dreaded "B" word, Bankruptcy.

5 Principles of Debt Management

1. Create an accurate assessment of your debt situation.
Make a list, chart or whatever you're most comfortable with, of all your debts. Be sure and include the amounts, interest rates, and expiration dates (especially on any no-interest for ## days type loans). Be sure and note any old accounts that you've got "laying around", such as that department store credit account that you opened to get the 15% discount.

You can now get a free credit report online. You should make sure that you've got a credit report and FICO score from each of the 3 national credit bureaus: Experian, Equifax, and TransUnion. The FTC advises monitoring your CREDIT REPORT activity ON ALL 3 BUREAUS. Under a new Federal law, you have the right to receive a free copy of your credit report once every 12 months from each of the three nationwide consumer reporting companies. AnnualCreditReport.com allows you to request a free credit file disclosure (ie. Credit Report) once every 12 months from each of the nationwide consumer credit reporting companies. This free credit report will not include your credit score, but it does give you a consolidated list of your debts, a record of requests for your credit history, and a summary of your rights under the Fair Credit Reporting Act.

Once you've gotten your free credit report, you also need to get your Credit Score. You can get your Credit Score, along with daily 3 bureau credit monitoring and other great services from FreeCreditScore.com.

2. Make a budget and stick to it!
Making a budget helps keep from increasing your debt, while you're trying to pay it down. Be specific and detailed in your budgeting. Except for emergencies, you should only be spending what is accounted for in your budget. Some people have found it helpful to keep a 30 day log of their spending. Carry a little notebook, or some index cards with you, and write down everything you spend each day. You'll probably be amazed at how much money you spend on things you want, and do not really need. The small things, such as that $ 3 cup of coffee every day, can slowly eat away at your finances. This will help keep you from getting further in debt. Your budget should define how much money you'll send to each of your creditors monthly and how much you need for bills, and how much is left for discretionary spending. Try limiting your discretionary spending to things you can buy with "pocket cash". This may be hardest thing you've ever done, but you will not get further in debt if you only spend what you have.

3. Pay off the debts one by one.
Maintain minimum payments to the rest of the debts, but pick the debt with the highest interest rate, and send extra payments to pay it off. There is a proven psychological benefit to being able to take a debt off of your list.

4. Consider debt consolidation or debt restructuring and possibly refinancing your home mortgage.
Lower your credit card debt by 70% by consolidating. With interest rates down, it also may be time to refinance your home mortgage loan and cut your monthly payment. You can get free mortgage loan quotes at LowCostLending. When you refinance, make sure closing costs and other fees do not outweigh the savings in your monthly payment. Another option is to get a Home Equity Loan. Home equity loans are good because they allow you to deduct the interest on your income taxes. Remember though, new credit is not a license to incur new or more debts. Once you've transferred a balance by consolidating, or refinancing, do not add more charges to the old account. If you've got a lot of open accounts, you may want to close some of them, but you should not necessarily always cancel the old account. Having a good payment history with a few existing accounts can be better for your credit record than many taken and new accounts.

5. If necessary, get help.
You may choose a credit counseling service, or debt counseling and debt help service to help with each step of your debt solution. Credit counselors can add accountability to your debt solution, and also serve as a source of encouragement. They are used to dealing with people with bad credit or poor credit, and can help you create a custom debt solution. They can suggest money lenders that might be more willing to make a loan to someone with a lower credit rating. Once you start reducing your debts without incurring new ones, you'll start to see your credit score rise.

By following these simple principles, you should be able to get your debt under control, reduce it, and eventfully eliminate it.

How Has the Internet Impected Market Research?

Market research is the way that companies gather information about their customers, competitors, and the effectiveness of their marketing campaigns for those of you who are wondering what it is. In recent years the internet has had a huge affect on the way that companies have been conducting their market research through the various methods that are available for them to use. Companies know that almost everyone and their dog get on the internet for one reason or another and this is a great way for them to be able to gather information about what their consumers want as well as keep an eye on what their competitors are doing. The internet is also a great way for companies to test and try different marketing campaigns before they spend millions of dollars on them. There are a few different ways that the Internet has had an effect on the way that market research is conducted.

One thing that companies are able to do is called keyword research. Conducting research on different keywords is how businesses find out what words and phrases their customers are using when they are searching for the products that they are selling. This is a great advantage because it allows the company to focus on certain words and phrases that will gain them popularity. Also, if the company has a website they will be able to move their website into a better position by building links back to their site that focus on these specific keywords.

Companies can also take surveys and put up polls on different topics that will help them to get the opinion of the consumers that buy their products. This helps the company to know what they are doing right so that they can do more of it and it also helps them to gather information that they can use to make their customers happier.

A company can also easily check out what their competition is doing by looking them up. They will be able to see where their competition is getting backlinks from, and they will be able to see what methods their completion is using to be able to gain more customers. There are a lot of different tools that a company can use to be able to find out what their competition is doing on the internet very quickly and easily. One of the biggest advantages that a company has when they use the internet for market research is testing different advertising campaigns to find out which one works the best. There are a lot of different ways to advertise both online and offline and companies pay a lot of money each year to advertise their business. By doing their market research online they will be able to find out which campaign will bring them the most success before they pay out all of the money to run it.

Over the past few years the internet has dramatically affected the way that market research is being conducted. It will have an even greater impact as we move forward into the future. It will be very necessary for every company to have knowledge of Internet Marketing so that they will be able to quickly and effectively do their research online.

The ABCs of Tax Lien Investing

Are you interested in yields of 6 percent to 50 percent on your money, secured by a property tax lien against real estate?

Author Joel S. Moskowitz explains how investors can buy little known tax lien certificates that pay high yields in his book, “The 16 Percent Solution”

As a bonus, although the author warns it rarely happens, the investor might get kicky and foreclose on the property. However, he cautions that property owners usually redeem, so investors must be content with just high yields.

What is a tax lien certificate?

When a real estate owner does not pay their property taxes, 27 states and 1,152 cities and counties sell tax lien certificates to investors. The government gets its property tax money immediately. The investor buys a tax lien, which is then secured by the real estate.

Tax lien certificate yields vary according to state law. Arizona’s top rate is 16 percent, Florida pays as much as 18 percent, but in Michigan, the rate goes up to 50 percent in the second year. If the property owner does not redeem the property from the investor by paying the back taxes plus the high interest rate, the investor obtains the title and possession of the property.

New investors can start small, perhaps investing a few hundred or a few thousand dollars, and then buy more property tax lien certificates later. Although not all states are smart enough to offer tax certificates to speed up tax collections, after reading this book, they’ll learn why they should.

At the time of writing, States currently offering tax certificates include Alabama, Arizona, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia and Wyoming.

The book’s outstanding appendix lists the interest rates and state-by-state procedures. For real estate investors who want to earn high yields without physically managing property, this new book shows how to do so. It also explains the few pitfalls to avoid and how to buy die best certificates with the highest profit opportunities.

On my scale of one to 10, this excellent book rates a solid 10.

The Benefits of Good Money Management Skills

The benefits of having good money skills when it comes to money management are incredible. Being able to effectively manage your money will open up new avenues in your life that were previously unavailable due to a lack of money. Learning how to manage your money will essentially give the disposable income that is required to live a life without limits. Few other skills compare to that of effective money management.

Live a More Stress-Free Life

When you manage your money correctly you should live a more stress-free life. Money is one of the most stressful things in someone's life and therefore has to be managed properly to reduce the stress involved with it. Effective money management will avoid some of the serious consequences that come with not staying up to date with your bills, sending your kids to college, and any other type of stress that money brings to one's life. If you always have some spare cash lying around you will feel much more secure. The security that money brings plays a huge part in helping people to reduce stress.

Achieve Your Dreams

Everyone has different dreams in life. However, almost every dream that one can have involves money in some way or another. Being able to effectively manage money is the only way for most people to achieve their dreams if they do in fact involve a financial component. You are not going to be able to take your partner on that dream vacation without money. That is just not how the world works. However, if you effectively manage your income then that dream vacations becomes a lot more realistic. Having money can help you achieve all sorts of dreams within vacations as well. You may dream of sending your child to college or seeing your favorite professional sports team in live action. Either way chances are your dreams will cost you money and money management can be the path that gets you to making those dreams really happen.

Travel and Take More Vacations

While a dream vacation may not be in your plans, you will probably agree that you would like to be able to travel more. Traveling and seeing the world is something that costs a lot of money. For most people having good money skills is their only hope of being able to travel and see the world. There is a reason that most all people with money choose to spend it on traveling the world and seeing all that earth has to offer with their own eyes.

Enjoy Ultimate Freedom

Sadly, in this world money affects the amount of freedom a person has in their day to day life. If you have unlimited money then you can literally do almost anything you want. You can sleep in, eat out, go to the moon, and almost anything if you have the right amount of money. By attaining some great money skills when it comes to money management you can continuously open up your life to more freedom.

Hunters Vs Farmers – How to Organize Your Sales Force

It is the age old question. Is there a secret sauce that all great salespeople have, or are successful hunters different from successful farmers? Over the past couple of years it has become clear (at least in my head) that there are two distinct types of salespeople: hunters and farmers. I decided to write this article because I have had several discussions over the past two months with salespeople who want to know whether they are a hunter or a farmer, and with sales executives that want to know how to organize their sales force based on the two Distinct types of salespeople. As always, I would love your opinions on hunters vs. Farmers, and what your company's sales force looks like!

Let me first articulate what I mean by hunters (Ex. "New Business Development Executive") and farmers (Ex. "Account Manager"). Hunters large work at the beginning of the sales funnel, both prospecting and qualifying sales opportunities. They generally will find a solution to a qualified prospect's expressed need and work to take the opportunity to closure, but they are not responsible for post-sales activities. Farmers large work at the back end of the funnel, and are responsible for servicing existing customers and identifying / closing new sales opportunities with their assigned accounts.

Differences Between Hunters and Farmers:

One of the shocking things that I learned when getting to understand what makes great hunters / farmers was that many of the major competencies that make someone successful at one type of sales role actually work against them in another! If you have been engaged in this debate or are wondering if you are a better hunter / farmer, here are some key differences between the two types of sales roles.

Emotional Resilience vs.. Emotional Intelligence: Hunters must be emotionally resiliant to deal with the high levels of daily rejection that come with prospecting (ex cold calling); They have to bounce back in a matter of seconds from rejection and reach out to another potential prospect. Because hunters spend a lot of time prospecting, this is a key aspect to their success. On the other hand, farmers must be emotionally in-tune with their account team and the customer team. After all, customer satisfaction is an emotional feeling and farmers must be adept at sensing that.

Hunt vs. Fulfillment: Hunters are driven by the rush of the hunt (go figure!), And the thrill of the "kill". Given how exciting that rush is, everyday details can seem pretty boring. Because the primary duty of a hunter is to hunt, these works out well. In contrast, good farmers like to get their hands dirty with the details, and consider themselves solid and dependable. This caters well to fulfillment duties, which are vital to managing an account.

Independence vs. Team: Hunters are self-motivators and work very well independently. They sometimes even have a disdain for marketing or sales operations folks that try to work with them, and often do not like team work. This is a vital character because hunters work primarily by themselves during the prospecting and qualifying phases and have to be highly self-motivated. They rarely get help in their jobs without an opportunity has passed the qualification phase. By contract, farmers are team players and cooperators. They work closely with their account management team and the client, often framing business challenges and creating solutions along their client.

Qualifying vs. Nurturing: The best business development people out there are superior qualifiers. Hunters can be given 100 accounts and very quickly tell which five are worth pursuing. In business development, it is essential that hunters spend their time on prospects that might close or else they are wasting their time. This is the largest barrier to a hunter's productivity, so the ability to qualify quickly and accurately is critical. In contract, farmers are great nurturers. They look at relationships from a long term perspective and are interested in getting to know their clients on a multitude of dimensions. In account management, it is essential that salespeople develop thick long term bonds with their customers to promote trust and loyalty. If a farmer was given 100 prospects, they would naturally try to develop long term relationships with most of them.

Organizing Your Sales Force into Hunting and Farming

Growing revenue is always a priority in business, so hunters are always needed when the business is small and growing. As the business starts to grow and you see potential for profitable long term relationships with current customers, you will need to add farmers to your mix. The most common mistake I see business make is to under invest in their farmers. This is primarily because by the time you need farmers your sales force is filled with hunters that do not value farming. Take great care to check your hunters and invest in a farming unit. The type of farming unit you need will depend on several factors: size of client (gross revenue), complexity of client's business, importance of your products / services to client's business, complexity of your product / service portfolio, and of course revenue potential. As those criteria grow, there is the opportunity for more investment in an elite farming group. Farming units vary from cheap inside sales reps, to expensive Strategic Account Managers.

The investment in splitting your sales force into hunters (New Business Development) and farmers (Account Management) is large. You will need additional management layers, dedicated sales operations and enablement personnel, and other support roles. You should always run the numbers to make sure that each NBD and AM unit is profitable and can support itself. Sales should always be a revenue center.

Weaknesses of Implementing the Hunter / Farmer Model

One of the things that I have come to believe in my time studying and working with businesses is that every management model has its weaknesses. Splitting up your sales department into hunter and farmer departments is no exception. Here are two problems that I have seen businesses encounter and how to overcome them:

First, companies think Account Management (farming) is the same as customer service …. IT IS NOT. Certainly customer service is a large component of account management, but the primary focus of Account Management is to grow long term revenue …… which should be reflected in their incentive plans. I find too often that Account Managers do not work on any form of commission, and therefore do not seek out new sales opportunities. If you do not incentivize your farmers to grow the business, you will get a reactive group of folks who do not grow your most fertile customers. Keep in mind that it costs 8-10 times as much to sell to a new customer than an existing one, so your farming unit should have a great expense to revenue ratio.

The strongest objection to the separation of a sales force into hunters (new business development) and farmers (Account Management) is that it makes for an awkward transition for the customer after they have signed on the dotted line. This is a VERY valid point. After all, the customer has purchased from you because they have had a great experience with your hunter and may perceive a transition as a bait and switch. It is important to get your Account Managers involved with sales opportunities as early as the proposal writing process and as late as the final presentations.

You should also develop a value proposition for your customer's transition to the Account Manager during the proposal / presentation process. You need to ask for your new client's approval to transition to the new Account Manager, and you should only fully transition them when the clients feel comfortable. This part requires a lot of "managing", but is well worth the price to put your employees in rods that align with their competencies and put your customers in good long term hands.

As always, I would love to hear what you think of the hunter / farmer model, and what your sales force looks like!

The Benefits of Building Your Own Furniture

Building furniture is not for everyone. It requires a significant amount of patience and skill, and many people are more comfortable just going out to the local furniture store to purchase the pieces that will be the most appropriate in their home. For that select few that chooses to build their own furnishings, however, the process can be extremely rewarding. You'll have the ultimate say on every detail detail, and the end product will reflect your style. Every time you look on the work you've created, you'll feel awesome pride. You'll also probably save a significant amount of money, especially if you compare the price of furniture in high-end stores to your own quality creations. Finally, if you persevere and keep at it, you'll always create furniture of a high enough caliber to be passed down through generations and generations of your family.

Are you just starting to build your own furniture? There are a ton of resources on the web that you can access for anything from basic ideas to intricate plans that will guide you through the process. Most of these plans are free, but there are some sites that require you to purchase their plans. Keep in mind that this is not necessary, however. You should be able to find great blueprints for free if you spend some time searching.

You'll also want to purchase a set of tools to start working. You do not need to go out and set yourself up with the latest and greatest in woodworking equipment. In fact, that's a pretty silly thing to do, because you will not know if you really enjoy building furniture until you try it! Instead, buy the tools that you need as you require them. For example, for many projects you do not need to buy a saw. Instead, have the hardware store make the cuts for you. That will save you money initially, and if you decide that you want the convenience of being able to cut wood at home, you can always purchase a saw later. Also, you may want to consider renting equipment rather than purchasing it, in case you decide not to keep up with your new hobby. That way, you will not be stuck with expensive gear.

In the beginning, the furniture that you produce will not be perfect, and that's OK. Instead, concentrate on improving in the areas in which you are the most deficient. Perhaps you did not sand a surface well enough-next time, pay more attention to that part of the process. Each distinct action has repercussions, of course. For example, if you do not cut a piece of wood to the right dimension, chances are that it will never fit perfectly, and you'll end up with a piece of furniture that does not quite look right.

Building your own furniture is a great way to fill your home with beautiful pieces that you can be proud of. While this hobby may initially provide more certainty than anything else, you'll probably come to realize that the process was perhaps even more rewarding than the end result.

Choosing a Solid Copper Tea Kettle or Copper Plated Tea Kettle

Tea lovers for generations have enjoyed the beauty and quick heating characteristics of copper tea kettles. While kettles manufactured or handcrafted from copper have been produced in the United States for decades, most cookware of this type is now manufactured in England, Portugal, India and China. Because of the high cost of genuine copper, many teapots are now copper plated stainless steel.

Solid Copper Tea Kettles

When selecting a new or used solid copper teapot, it is important that the interior lining of the pot will be in good condition to avoid a metallic taste which can occur if copper is exposed inside the kettle. Most teapots manufactured from actual copper are lined on the inside with tin or nickel to avoid the metallic taste of copper. With use, the kettle will tarnish or develop an "antiqued" look. If you prefer to keep the teapot shiny on the outside, the exterior of the pot should be regularly cleaned with a high quality non-abrasive metal polish. For quickly cleaning the most stubborn tarnish, Wenol metal polish does an excellent job and leaves a clean polished surface appearance. Never clean the interior of a solid copper teapot with metal polish, metallic scrubbing pads, metal utensils, bleach, vinegar, or harsh cleaners as this can severely damage the interior lining of the pot. Because copper cookware is a fast conductor of heat, solid copper teapots will normally perform well on medium or lower heat settings saving time and energy. Great care should be used to never allow a solid copper tea kettle to boil dry on the stovetop. While most kettles will be damaged by this occurrence, allowing a solid copper kettle to boil dry can severely damage the interior lining of the kettle. A solid copper tea kettle with a scorched or damaged interior lining should not be used. Allowing a solid copper tea kettle to boil dry can also warp or other damage the kettle.

Copper Plated Teapots

Many of the new generation of copper teapots are manufactured from stainless steel with a copper plating and feature rugged construction for everyday use. To eliminate the need for polishing, some (but not all) of the new generation copper plated stainless steel tea kettles also feature a high temperature exterior clear coat which seals the exterior copper plating to minimize tarnishing. Because the kettle is manufactured from stainless steel, the kettle interior is easy to clean and is resistant to damage.