Monthly Archives: June 2017

Make Dry Ice Blasting Your Small Business Opportunity

What is dry ice blasting? Dry ice blasting is a form of abrasive blasting industrial cleaning that uses a solid form of carbon dioxide known as dry ice. Pellets or ice is shot through pressurized air stream of either one hose or two hose machines.

Which System is Best? Most systems today are the single hose technology. Technology using the single hose was created by the Cold Jet company in 1986. One advantage of the single hose system is that it avoids the possible dangers of a pressurized hopper by the use of a quick cycle airlock. Another advantage of the single hose system is that it has more power and you can use a longer hose.

Making Massive Money! There are many ways to make money cleaning with Dry Ice. Many people prefer Dry Ice Blasting for paint removal, because it is less harsh than sand blasting. Another great business opportunity is to clean food processing equipment. Because it can decontaminate surfaces that could contain Salmonella and E. coli. Dry Ice can clean without residue so the Environmental Protection Agency prefers it to many kinds of solvent based cleaners. The Aerospace industry also uses Dry Ice Blasting to sensitive equipment like clean semiconductors. Manufacturers are also a great business opportunity because cleaning with cold can be used for maintaining their equipment and can drastically reduce their down time.

The Freeze Jet is just one of several different types of Dry Ice Blasting equipment. For around $ 3,000 you can usually purchase a Dry Ice Blasting machine.

What about Safety? How safe is this type of industrial cleaning? Cleaning with cold (normal pressure is -78C (-108 F) can be toxic if the concentration is over 1%. Asphyxia can be caused because of oxygen removal so Dry Ice must be used in a well ventilated area.

Safety Equipment: Typical safety equipment will include a positive pressure blast hood or helmet. Air hoses are attached to a grade D pressurized air supply, which is mandated by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Also using ear plugs for hearing protection is part of the usual safety equipment. Body protection usually includes gloves and overalls as well as a leather coat and chaps.

What fees can I charge? How much money can I make in this Industrial Cleaning business? Total typical fees can range in the $ 300.00 per hour range, so it can be one of the more lucrative types of industrial cleaning.

The Benefits of Dry Ice Blasting: This type of industrial cleaning meets EPA, USDA, and FDA guidelines. Has less clean up of the waste material. Extends the life of the equipment. Cleans more thoroughly. Reduces or eliminates equipment damage. Provided a safer cleaning environment. Is Non-polluting and environmental friendly. Can destroy and eliminate bacterial and fungal growth.

How can I get started? You can get started with your small business by beginning with a business plan. A business plan is a formal statement of business goals, reasons that they are attainable, and plans for reaching them. It may also contain background information about the organization or team attempting to reach those goals. It should also contain a good marketing plan. Then apply for small business government grants or small business loans, so you can purchase equipment.

Having your own business can help you to end money worries. Having a business plan is essential to having a successful small business. Knowing how to market your small business for little or no money is an important key to your business success as well. Imagine how much more profit you can have when you do not have to budget much on advertising.

Get Colossal Cash from Government Contracts. Companies interested in selling their products and services to the federal government (the United States General Administration Administration) can prepare by fulfilling applicable requirements, and registering in the appropriate systems. Companies may also participate by seeking sub-contracting opportunities with current contract holders. The General Services Administration provides and contracts for Billions of dollars' worth of products and services for federal agencies.

In summary Dry Ice Blasting can be an extremely profitable business and helps with the environment as well.

Credit Repair Business Plan

Here's the executive summary of a Credit Repair Business Plan:

  • A description of your company, including your products and / or services
  • Your mission statement
  • Your business's management
  • The market and your customer
  • Marketing and sales
  • Your competition
  • Your business's operations
  • Financial projections and plans

For someone looking for a credit repair business plan, a simple description may be "Ace Credit restoration provides credit restoration services to help consumers attain good credit and therefore have more attractive financing options. The company provides credit repair on a fee-for-service model Charging $ 800 to $ 2000 per client and reaches new clients via relationships by credit-dependent professionals (real estate, car dealers, etc.), financial professionals (tax, insurance, financal planners), consumer direct marketing (internet, radio, tv, postcards ), And past-client referral cultivation.

Any business plan should then talk about management, which indicates to your experience. If you have experience managing a team, attention to detail, and / or financial experience, this is relevant and should be included.

When writing about your client, the consumer, you'll find there are about 70 to 80 million americans with bad credit, many millions of whatever will need to finance a home or car or other purchase and will there be interested in purchasing credit repair services . While some people do attempt credit repair on their own, credit is becoming increasingly complex and important. Fewer people succeed or event attempt it, and like dealing with plumbing or auto repairs, most are willing to pay a professional to get it done right.

Next, you should include a specific marketing breakdown. We have found that at first, referral relationships are a great place to start. By offering "credit repair seminars" or "lunch and learn" events to local real estate agents or car dealers, you can quickly position yourself as an expert, develop referral sources, and help them sell more homes or cars. As your business grows, you'll want to branch out into mass media, internet marketing to increase your visibility and scale up your operations.

The next section generally will cover competition, which of course varies by market. Currently, the credit repair business is still open and large driven on referrals at time of need, meaning people often get their credit restored when preparing to buy a home or car, or after being declined for some type of financing (ie a credit card at Better terms than they have previously). Longer term, the internet is a massive source of business that still has fundamental opportunity. One still large untapped area requiring someone to execute their credit repair business plan is in the area of ​​social marketing (ie Facebook) and joint ventures with point-of-need media ie a referral relationship with leading real estate websites, car dealer websites, etc . Who depend on attractive financing.

Next, your plan should cover operations. You can run a credit repair home based business, or you can use office space. One under-used idea is renting a desk inside a busy real estate office. This can provide more than just a professional meeting place, but the abundance of agents who depend on their clients having good financing will actually guarantee some clients are delivered to you. This can also help embed your credit repair business into the local ecosystem of potential referring businesses such as mortgage, insurance, and financial professionals. Most real estate offices would be open to rent a desk or office within or near the facility. Another option for your credit repair business plan is to run a home based credit repair business, but have a set schedule at local real estate offices or car dealers to review any new files and answer questions the agents or dealers might have.

Financial projections and plans in your credit repair business plan should address startup costs and revenue, and possibly even exit such as sale of the company. Since there are systems that provide more than just software, but complete turn-key systems (similar to a franchise) including training to make you the expert, unlimited paralegal support, annual conferences, marketing support, legal support, and much more you should investigate Your options.

Obviously success varies by talent, work, resources and abilities with any business opportunity. That said, we know of affiliates who have taken their credit repair business plan and implemented on that plan, grossing over $ 100,000 per month. If you like the idea of ​​being your own boss and earning an executive level income, we encourage you to take look at your business plan as just the first step an an exciting new venture.

Revolutionized Marketing and Different Innovative Strategies

Digital Marketing is much like modern architecture in many ways. It is the way of the world and these guidelines are just a start to get your business off on the right foot. Mastering digital marketing is not a cakewalk. According to the Digital Marketing Institute, it is the required result of digital channels to promote or market products and services to consumers and businesses. It believes to be wavering these days as many companies that once used the old style of marketing are now going digital. It is essential in today’s world that a company which exists physically, must exist digitally as well. It is believed that existing digitally gains advertising process. There exist a different and more approachable digital marketing tools like web designing, pay-per-click marketing, SMS, and email marketing. The following article will educate you in not one but many ways.

Direct marketing and advertising is an advertising in which companies offer physical marketing and advertising materials to consumers to communicate details about a service or product. Inbound marketing can likewise be an essential tool in the continuing retention of present customers, by creating communication with those customers and enabling business to engage with other customers by giving informative, educational result together with product promotions. While outbound marketing could reach a greater audience, additionally, it runs the danger of barring uninterested consumers also. If you prefer to do better marketing without harming your finances, direct marketing will probably be somewhat decent for you. Second, content promotion is a pull, instead of a push, strategy. To the contrary, it is a refreshingly new concept in marketing which provides a unique comprehension of consumer behavior.

Content can typically be about a service or a product, it might be be item, price, service charges or the selling of digital products like books, movies or software. It is something that helps in relaying old customers and theby helps in pulling traffic from popular search engines. The very first and most critical issue is quality content, try using attractive words that could connect nicely with readers. Step one on any advertising (or indeed, marketing) campaign needs to be to recognize the aims and goals of the campaign and the way they fit into the aims and goals of the business all around. Digital advertising and marketing campaigns will need to rely on these limits to be prosperous. Together with creating great advertising text (copy), you may want to study the way you can earn a corporation’s marketing campaigns visually appealing, through the usage of banners, images, videos and more.

Although these facts may be true, but sometimes it gets difficult to do all these techniques in the company. Therefore, known and recognized companies and firms may hire a digital marketing agency to do on behalf of them. Most renovated digital marketing agency may not only offer quality and dependable benefits, also they have a digital marketing and advertising strategist which may help plan the most helpful campaigns. To be successful in today’s day, companies need to continuously create new content that does not only get them found but also lets them capture leads. Soon it will not be enough for businesses to understand what you might want. All businesses wish to strengthen their relationship with clients and prospects. Now everyone is aware of what the business is shooting for. It is essential that businesses optimize their online properties effectively to be able to get to the top of the important important search engine result page.

Even though many mistake digital for internet, to their surprise online marketing is only a part of the huge digital marketing framework. In a broader sense, the net is the center of digital marketing. It has made easier for marketing managers to measure the results of a campaign. Since you can see the internet is by far not the only spot for marketers to assemble success, even in past couple of years. The web and the world have brought in an entire new perception of the advertising market. Thus, if you need to effectively advertise your business on the internet then seek the services of a renovated digital advertising company at the earliest.

What You Need To Know About Information Systems

We live in a world today in which everything happens at a jets speed. In business and in our personal lives we need to keep up with this speed of data processing so we are exposed to various channels and devices. The internet remains one of the most fundamental means of optimizing business transactions because rendering physical boundaries like distance very negligible. As the internet continues to transform business opportunities one major cause of concern is the method of payment for goods and services on this platform. It is not news that electronic finance aims at changing the face of the financial industry by encouraging online banking, brokerages, etc. leveraging on the Internet's accessibility across the globe this phenomenon has been very advantageous in terms of

1.Reduced cost
2.Increased quality of service and
3.Greater access to financial services.

In as much as the opportunities for growth and business awareness through the internet are limitless this also presents a threat to the financial institutions and to the individual customers. Before the advent of the Internet, the most secure way of keeping money in the bank was by using a high tech vault and securing the place with efficient security officials and burglary systems and if money is to move a bullion van is used to convey it from One location to the other in the company of heavily armed security officials. But as bullion vans are rapidly being replaced by Electronic Funds Transfer Systems (EFTs) a more sophisticated means of securing money has to be put in place. In my own words the EFT is more like an amplifier, because all along there has always been the existence of bandits and bank robbers. Only that they were limited to the technology available in their time. These same bandits are still on the prowl and this time having sufficient technology at their disposal to carry out their illicit acts. In Nigeria today for example the Government recently set a standard for electronic payments mandating the use of only PIN and CHIP cards because of their tested security features and their validity. But then we as individual users should not always wait or expect the financial institutions and the Government to do all the work so the following basic steps that we as individuals can take to put some level of security on the use of an Electronic Funds Transfer System .

Understanding the necessity of Encryption Standards: Although this may be somewhat technical for regular users of EFTs but it can easily be done by verifying the use of Digital Certificates of any institution that provides the platform for an EFT. This is usually displayed on the website of the company and you may go a step further by confirming the existence of an independent body that signs off that site as secure examples of such independent bodies include Verisign.

Importance of Acknowledgments or notifications: Although many financial institutions use this concept to promote non-repudiation (a process where the individual can not deny making a transaction). It is also important as an individual to receive alerts whenever transactions are made to help track the time and location of any illegal transaction on your account.

The use of time stamps: This is also primarily used by the institutions to prevent replay of transactions as multiple transactions with similar time stamps would be disregarded except the original. This would also be handy for an individual especially when a huge volume of transaction is posted wrongly such transaction history can be traced and reversed accordingly.

When using retail EFTs such as The Automated Teller machine (ATM) and Point of Sale Systems (POS) it is necessary to understand these concepts.

1. Avoid using birthdays and anniversaries as PINs or Passwords as most of them are easily compromised.
2. Avoid writing down your PIN or Password for any reason.
3. Never dislose your PIN to anyone not even your institution has the right to ask for it.
4. Limit the amount of personal information you provide on various online Communities eg Facebook. Twitter, flickr etc.
5. Beware of Shoulder Surfing when entering your PIN or Passwords.
6. As much as possible put some restriction to the access granted to your mobile phones, BlackBerrys, PDAs, PCs or Disk drives especially when they contain sensitive information.

Little information can give away large assets. The best way to avoid this is to be security conscious and understand whatever technology you are using as an individual or as an enterprise.

Credit Repair Services: Do You Really Need It?

Repairing credit can be compared to losing weight, there is no quick-fix! Just as it takes time to get rid of your fat, the same goes for the negative items on your credit report. Any attempt to repair your credit quickly is more likely to backfire, than to produce any positive result. The best thing that you can do in order to rebuild your credit is to be responsible in managing it over a period of six months at the least.

You need to be responsible in managing your credit, but what if there are errors and inaccuracies in your credit report that render it negative? The worst thing about such inaccuracies is that you are at a serious disadvantage, usually through no fault of yours. Unfortunately, a study by US Public Interest Research revealed that 70 percent of all credit reports contain serious errors.

Fixing these errors involves a detailed legal process which consists of sending dispute letters to creditors and credit bureaus, sending reminders, studying the documentary evidence provided by creditors and bureaus, and more. Like most people, you might not have the required time and expertise to follow through on all of these processes efficiently. This is where credit repair services can help you out. Now it’s important to understand that it will not be possible to improve your credit score in a few weeks. As previously stated, this is not possible even if the negative items in your credit report are due to error.

Time taken for Credit Repair
Creditors and credit bureaus are required by law to produce original documentation in order to prove the negative items that are present on your credit report. They can not take more than 30-45 days to do so. However, drafting and sending dispute letters may take some time as well. Some people think that it is possible for any consumer to get his or her credit score corrected without any professional help, which is true but very practicable.

Anyone whose credit report contains errors can try to draft their own dispute letters and send them to the concerned parties, but it is time-consuming and it takes a lot of mental effort. Unless you are ready to take this duty as seriously as you take any other professional commitment, do not even try! Hiring a reliable provider for credit repair services, which would be a company that has more than a decade of experience helping thousands of customers with unfair negative credit reports, can help you correct your credit score without too much fuss.

Credit report repair services are particularly useful when :

– The negative items on your credit report are due to accounting, reporting or any other error committed by creditors, credit bureaus or collection agencies. Genuine errors can be triggered off from the reports smoothly when you go through the proper procedures.

– The credit repair service providers are good at identifying errors that can not be verified. By law, if any item in the report can not be backed up by documentary evidence, it needs to be removed. This loophole can be used by credit repair companies to improve your score.

– Some lenders are willing to negotiate with credit repair representatives of their consumers. If your lender allows it, this can help you raise your credit score.

The Pains of Doing Online Business in Africa

Take it or leave it, Africa is a great continent. It is my beloved continent with an estimated population of 1.216 billion people.

There are about 7 billion people with unique skills, talents, knowledge, and experience. God bless humanity.

So, if you think of the right market to sell your goods or services, come to Africa.

This is the optimistic part of this story. It is good to begin 2017 on a positive, optimistic level.

Now, let us come down to reality. The world has gone digital. But, Africa is still slow in moving from analogue to digital age.

Corruption, illiteracy, poverty, lack of social amenities, lack of trust, lack of knowledge on what it takes to run a business online, are some of the factors militating against Africa and Africans.

Internet penetration is 28.7 percent in my beloved continent. Compared to North America with 89 percent penetration level, this is a far cry.

This means North America with an estimated population of 579 million people is more digital than Africa. But, Africa has the market. In fairness, businesses are striving in the continent.

Lots of Africans know little or nothing about online business and think that people who do businesses online are either fraudsters or criminals.

This is not true. There are genuine and fake business owners everywhere, internet inclusive.

Trust has also made it impossible to do business online. With the world becoming a global family, business owners do not need to meet physically to transact business. There are no restrictions in this digital age to running businesses.

Everything and anything could be sold online and money in local and foreign currencies transferred from one part of the world to the other.

But, my good friend in Lagos, Nigeria, who has masters degree from one of the oldest universities in our country know little or nothing about running an online business.

We were discussing yesterday and he told me bluntly that he knows next to nothing about online business.

So, he is comfortable moving his vehicle parts from one place to the other in search of customers.

This is the pains some of online business owners are going through through Africa with great potentials.

But, the pains of not getting enough customers from Africa for your business are a passing phase. Even as the Bible says, this will pass away.

Therefore, in 2017, I am positive that more and more business owners will gain the pains of going from analogue to digital in Africa.

I get the feeling deep down that ten years down the line, the story will change for the better and internet penetration in Africa will rise.

Market Global Structure

A multinational firm's organizational structure that reflects the "global" philosophy that the world is basically one homogeneous market is called a "global structure." For example, by this philosophy, many large electronics and consulting firms, while allowing for minor local adjustments to packaging and language, basically project the same kinds of products and services around the world. However, there are several differences in terminology and philosophy in this field.

First, a "global" philosophy is characterized by seeing the world as one more-or-less monolithic market with similar tastes and preferences. In contemporary parlance this is opposed to a "multidomestic" (or multilateral or multilocal) philosophy by which one sees the world as made up of many more-orless unique markets, each with its distinct tastes and preferences. A position between these two extremes is called regionalism, wheree one sees the world as being made up of a small number of quite homogenous regions. These constructions can be applied to industries, firms, and organizational structures, and it is informative to understand how global thinking at industry and strategic levels apply.

For example, George Yip sees globalization as a function of the lessons to which the global marketplace is fragmented, local customer needs are distinct, local sourcing imperatives exist, costs are heterogeneous, and trade barriers are significant to cross-border commerce. Thus Randall Schuler, Peter Dowling, and Helen De Cieri and other seminars refer to some industries-like commercial aircraft, copiers, generic drugs, most electronics and computer hardware-as global industries; While retail, the food industry, and most services are considered substantively multidomestic.

Multinationals-and other large firms, for that matter-generally are divided into several parts, units, or divisions that reflect some aspect of their strategy. This link between structure and strategy was made famous in the classic book Strategy and Structure by Alfred DuPont Chandler. For example, a firm with five product categories may have been structured into five divisions, each division mandated to manage one of the product categories. Chris Bartlett and Sumantra Ghoshal build on this logic as they focus on organizational responses to global and local forces; And they describe four organizational types (or mentalities) for the global organization that represent organizational and strategic responses to various industry contingencies. For example, they describe the global firm that views the world as its market, asserts that national tastes are more similar than different, and that believes in standardized products; And these strategic approaches require structural integrative mechanisms that are to coordinate worldwide activities, production, marketing, research and development (R & D), and planning.

Thus, it is these structural processes that are represented by the term global structure. Mechanisms All large organizations need some structures that coordinate and integrate to some degree. However, the global strategy relations on these structures for implementation are there three major aspects to this kind of structure. The first is the locus of strategic responsibility. Second, the way the structure separates reporting relationships and dictates how the firm is divided. This aspect of structure may be called structuring. The final aspect is the kinds of coordination and integration systems-these may be called processes.

Locus of strategic responsibility: A critical aspect of organization structure is the amount to which decision-making automation is delegated from corporate headquarters to parts of the business. In the global firm there is a strategic imperative to centralize important strategic decisions. For example, decisions on product range, research and development, branding, and human resource management tend to be made at corporate rather than subsidiary level. Even customer service, which is the function most likely to be located close to the customer, may have its major policies and standards set at corporate level. Structuring: A characteristic of the global structure is that it is reliably blind to geographical distance and instead focuses on one or more other strategic dimensions-like products or markets-that it considers more important (than geography) to its success at implementing a global strategy .

Thus a global structure commonly has a major top-level division into product categories (generally called a global product structure), markets (global market structure), or some matrix (global matrix structure). As an example of a global product structure, Procter & Gamble (P & G) has three global product divisions, namely Global Beauty, Global Household Care, and Global Health & Well-being. However, the distinction between product and market structures is likely to be blurred-for example, Boeing's business units seem like different product divisions (commercial airplanes, integrated defense systems, and Boeing capital corporation), but in effect all three have the aim of marketing Various aircraft and aerospace products and services to different market groups-in this case commercial airlines, governments, and financial intermediaries.

The global matrix structure attempts to organize activities by two (or more) managerial dimensions-like product, geography, and / or market. For example HJ Heinz has historically geographical divisions in North America, Europe, Australia / New Zealand, and emerging markets (selected countries in Asia and eastern Europe); Several product categories, namely ketchup / condiments / sauces, meals and snacks (including frozen foods), soups / beans and pasta, and infant feeding; And separate operations for retail and food service channels. In a global structure these diverse departmental and business divisions may have necessary aspects of local focus, but essentially they work together to implement the firm's global strategy.

Processes: Finally, and very importantly, structure imploys processes such as coordination, integration, and information systems. These processes tend to be pronounced in the global structure, and generally very common in contemporary organizations. Kwangsoo Kim and Jong-Hun Park identify four generic integrating mechanisms: (1) people-based integrating mechanisms that use people to coordinate business operations across borders, involving the transfer of managers, meetings, teams, committees, and integrators; (2) information-based integrating mechanisms use information systems such as databases, electronic mail, Internet, intranet, and electronic data interchanges to integrate business operations across borders; (3) formalization-based integrating mechanisms rely on the use of standardized or common work procedures, rules, policies, and manuals across units; And (4) centralization-based integrating mechanisms retain decision-making authority at the corporate headquarters-a similar concept to that in the "locus of strategic responsibility" section above.

The more global the firm, the more it uses these processes. Intel, for example, uses relatively few formal structural mechanisms, but several cross functional teams-including information technology (IT), knowledge management, human resources, finance, legal, change control, data warehousing, common directory information management, and cost reduction teams -as integrating processes that allow them rapid adaptation to changing conditions. Integrating mechanisms can also have negative effects-assuming tying the hands of local managers, imposing compliance costs (both time and other resources), and creating unintended bureaucratic barriers to efficient decision making. A study by David Brock and Ilene Siscovick, for example, found effects of integrative factors at the threshold level were often negative.

How to Outline Your Financial Goals

People save and invest to improve their quality of life. However, it is easy to make mistakes that can cause stress and cost you money. You can avoid those mistakes and keep your investment on track by outlining your financial goals.

It is a common investment mistake for investors to have no idea why they are investing. So, you should ask yourself …

Why are you investing?

Do you know why you are investing? What are you going to do with your money? What is most important in your life?

"Making money" is not a good enough reason to invest. How do you see yourself spending your money in a year? Five years? Ten years? If you can clearly explain your goals, you have taken the first step towards making your own investment plan.

With that in mind, write down your financial goal . One simple sentence is all you need. For example, you can write "buy a home", "pay for college," "start a business," or "retire as a millionaire!"

Next, write down the amount of money you think you will need to accomplish your goals.

Do not worry about trying to fit in every little cost. You can always revise your target later when you check your performance. Focus on your goal, and try to write down a target number.

This number will be different depending on your goal. For example, maybe you're buying a $ 100,000 home, you may want to save $ 10,000 for a down payment. Maybe you need $ 5,000 to start a business or $ 50,000 to pay for college. If you do not have much money to invest, you can make up for it by investing over a long period of time.

Finally, consider the importance of your investment goals . How important is your retirement, your kid's college tuition, or your down payment on a house? The importance of your investment will give you an idea of ​​your risk level.

Every investment has risks.

You do not want to take too many risks. However, you need to take some risks to earn a reasonable return. Also consider the amount of time you will be invested. If you have more time to invest, you may be able to take risks and still catch up if you run into trouble.

Ask yourself if you are ready to invest before you move on. Be honest with yourself.

You may not need to invest your money. Would you be better off paying off your debt? Can you afford to just save your money rather than invest it? Make sure you can commit enough money and time to investing.

It is important to stay motivated toward your goals and keep them in mind when you invest. Every investment decision you make should move you closer to your goals. You should be willing to learn, improve, and work towards your goals as you invest.

If you can stay committed and keep that motivation toward your investment goals, you are much more likely to succeed!

A. Michael Hayes, Jr

You can learn more about how to achieve your financial goals at my website, .

Polypropylene – The Non-Woven Fabric

Polypropylene is a great eco friendly fabric that is being used today to replace other disposable plastic materials. For example, polypropylene has taken a great share of the disposable plastic bags used in grocery stores. There is still much work to be done to minimize the disposable plastic bags, but the polypropylene bags are working great.

What exactly is polypropylene? It is a plastic that is manufactured through a high heat source. It's molecular formula is (C3 H6) x. There are a few different names such as Polypropene, Polipropene 25, Propylene polymers, and more.

It is rough and resistant to other chemicals. Polypropylene is also tough, but also flexible. This makes the material to be used easily for chemical and plastic engineering experiments because it is so tough and flexible.

It is also economic because it can be reused. The fabric that is made is tough and durable so that it can be reused in different forms after being manufactured. Polypropylene fabric can be translucent, but because it does not fade very easily, most people use polypropylene as a colored fabric. So, the fabric can be faded and will not fade easily.

Polypropylene's melting point is approximately 320 degrees Fahrenheit. Once the chemicals have been bonded, they are melted and pressed through tight rollers that will make a thin fabric. This process is called extrusion and molding. As opposed to cotton or other natural fibers, which are woven, polypropylene is not woven. Many people in the fabric industry refer to these types of materials as "non-wovens." Cotton's fibers are typically spun into threads and woven together, but polypropylene is pressed into a fabric.

There are other finishes that can be applied to the finished fabric. Different types of finishes will produce different results. Some finishes are applied that will help the fabric accept ink better, which is better for imprinting. Some finishes will help repel other chemicals and solutions.

The polypropylene is used in a number of different fabric styles. These non-woven fabrics can be used to produce non-woven bags. Shirts are also manufactured using the non-woven material, such as Under Armor. The polypropylene properties keep sweat off of the body. It can also be used in ropes and other packaging materials. Surgeons are even using the fabric in hernia operations. After fixing the hernia, the doctor places the fabric over the area to prevent future blow-outs.

Most importantly, the non-woven fabric can be recycled, which is great for the environment. The resin identification code is number 5, and most recycling centers will accept these bags to be recycled.

Definition of Staffing

The managerial function of staffing is defined as filling, and keeping filled, positions in the organizations structure. This is done by identifying work-force requirements inventorying the people available, and recruiting, selecting, placing, promoting, apprising, planning the careers of, compensating, and training or overview developing both candidates and current jobholders so that they can accomplish their task effectively And efficiently. It is clear that staffing must be closely linked to organizing, that is, to the setting up of international structures of rules and positions. Many writers on management theory discuss staffing as a phase of organizing.

First, the staffing of organizational roles includes knowledge and approaches not usually recognized by practicing manager, who often thinks of organizing as just setting up structures of roles and giving little attention to filling these roles. Second, making staffing a separate function facilitates placing an even greater earthquake on the human elements selection, appraisal, and planning and manager development. Third, an important body of knowledge and experience has been developed in the area of ​​staffing. The fourth season for separating staffing is that managers often overlook the fact that staffing is their responsibility-not that the personnel department. To be sure this department provides valuable assistance, but it is the job of manager to fill the positions in their organizations and keep them filled with qualified people.

Defining the Managerial Job

Complete agreement does not exist as to what exactly constitutes the job of a manager. In fact, the nature of managerial tasks has been studied from several different perspectives. One group of writers known as the great man school, studied successful manager and described their managerial behaviors and habits. Although the stories about these people are interesting the authors usually do not provide an underlying theory to explain the success of their subjects. Other writers primarily economists focus on the entrepreneurial aspects of managing. Their main concern is profit maximizations, innovation, risk taking and similar activities. Yet another group of writers emphasizes decision making, especially the kinds of decisions that can not be easily programmed. An additional view of managerial job draws attention to leadership, with an emphasis on particular behaviors and managerial styles. Closely related to this approach is the discussion about the power influence that is the leader’s control of the environment and subordinates. Others writers focus their attention on the behavior of leaders by examining the content of the manager’s job. Finally the approach favored by Henry Mintzberg is based on observing the work activities of managers. He found through observation of five executives that their works was characterized by brevity, variety, and discontinuity and action orientation. He also noted that executives favor oral communication and that the engage in many activities that link the enterprise with its environment.

Factors Affecting the Number and kind of Managers Required

The number of managers needed in an enterprise depends not only on its size but also on the complexity of the organizations structure, the plans for expansion, and the rate of turnover of administrative personnel. The ratio between the number of managers and the number of employee does not follow any law. It is possible by enlarging or contracting the delegation of authority, to modify a structure so that the number of managers in a given instance or determine regardless of the size of the operation. Although the need for determining the number of managers required has been stressed here, it is clear that numbers are only part of the picture. Specifically, the qualifications for individual positions must be identified so that the best-suited managers can be chosen.

The Management Inventory

It is common for any business, as well as for most non business enterprise, to keep an inventory of raw materials and goods on hand to enable it to carry on its operations. It is far less common for enterprise to keep an inventory of available human resources, particularly managers, since the fact that the required number of competent managers is a vital requirement for success. Keeping abreast of the management potential within firm can be done by the use of an inventory, which is simply an organizations chart of a unit with managerial position indicated and keyed as to the promo ability of each assument.

Advantages and Limitations of the Manager Inventory Chart

The manager inventory chart, as seen from the preceding discussion, has certain general advantages.
The chart gives an overview of the staffing situations of an organization.
Managers who are ready for promotion can now be easily identified. Prompt action in finding a suitable position within the organization may reduce the propensity of managers to seek employment outside the company.
The chart also shows the future internal supply of managers by indicating who is promotable in a year or more.
Managers who do not perform satisfactorily are identified, and the need for training or replacement is indicated.
If the organization has insufficient “depth” requirement and training plans can be initiated immediately to ensure the future supply of managers.
Managers who are close to retirement can be identified, and preparation can be made for their replacement.
The chart facilitates the transfer of managers not only to strengthen weak department but also to broaden the manager’s experience.
One can identify prevent the hoarding of promotable people by their immediate superiors, a practice quite common, especially in large enterprises. Naturally superiors dislike depriving themselves of able subordinates by letting them transfer to other organizational units. But the overall interest of the enterprise is more important than the self-interest of an individual manager.
Managers can counsel correspondents about their career paths and relate them employment opportunities within the company.

Despite its many advantages, the manager inventory chart also has some limitations:

The chart does not show to what positions the manager may be promotable, if an opening occurs in another organizational unit; The person who is promotable now will not need to be able to fit this position, since knowledge or skills may be required in specialized areas. A promotable manager in a production department can seriously fill the job of vice president of sales.

The data show on the chart is not sufficient for making a fair assessment of all the capabilities of individuals. It is still necessary to keep records of each individual’s skill, performance, and other biographical information.

Although the chart is useful for counseling subordinates, it is often not practical to share the information will all employees. Instead, only the top manager of a division or a department may have this information available.

It takes time and effort to keep the chart up to date.

Upper-level managers may be associated to make their charts available to other upper-level managers because they may be afraid they will lose competent subordinates to other organizational units.

Situational Factors Affecting Staffing

Specifically, external factors include the level of education the prevailing attitudes in society (such as the attitude towards work), the many laws and regulation that directly affect, staffing, the economic conditions, and the supply of and demand for managers outside the enterprise. There are many internal factors that affect staffing. They include, for example, organizational goals, tasks, technology, organization structure the kind of employed by the enterprise, the demand for and the supply for managers within the enterprise, the reward system and various kinds of policies. Some organizations are highly structured; Others are not. For some positions-such as the position of a sales manager-skill in human relations may be of vital importance, while the same skill may be less critical for a research scientist working fairly independently in the laboratory. Effective staffing then requires recognition of, any external and internal situational factors, but the focus here is on those that have a particular relevance to staffing.

The External Environment

Factors in the external environment do affect staffing to various degrees. These influences can be grouped into educational, sociocultural, legal-political, and economic constitutions or opportunities. For example, the high technology used in many industries requires intensive and intensive education. Similarly, managers in the industries require intensive and intensives education. Similarly, managers in the sociocultural environment in the United States generally do not accept orders blindly; They want to become active participants in the decision making process. Tomorrowmore, now and in the future, managers will have to be more ordinate toward the public than they have been in the past, responding to the public’s legitimate needs and adhering to high ethical standards. The economic environment including the competitive situation-determines the external supply of, and the demand for managers. Legal and political constraints require that firms follow laws and guidelines issued by various level of government.

Equal employment opportunities: several laws have been passed that provide for equivalent employment opportunity (EEO). The laws prohibit employment practices that discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, or age (in specified age ranges). EEO is based on federal, state, and local laws, and these laws impact on staffing. Recruitment and selection for promotion must be in compliance with these laws. This means that managers making decisions in these areas must be knowledgeable about the laws and the way they apply to the staffing function.

Women in Management: in the last decade or so, women have made significant progress in obtaining responsible positions in organizations. Among the reasons for this development are laws governing fair employment practices, changing social attitudes towards women in the workplace, and the desire of companies to project a favorable image by placing qualified women in managerial positions. Opportunities for women occupying administrative positions are increasing. But career advances may depend on the functional area, on the kind of industry, or on particular companies. Women are likely to be found at senior levels of management in areas such as personnel and public relations. Certain industries provide faster investment opportunities than others. Financial services institutions, such as banks and relating firms, which traditionally employ large percentage of women, also have more women in managerial positions.

Evidence indicates that women also have some difficulty making it to the top. For example, no women are major candidates for the position of chief executive officer in the fortune five hundred corporations. Discrimination has been given as one reason, according to a Fortune article. On the other hand, women`s representation on boards of directors is increasing. Neverheless, the total number of women serving on boards is still rather small.

Staffing in the International Environment: one must look beyond the immediate external environment, and recognize the worldwide changes thought about primarily, by advanced communication technology and by the existence of multinational corporations. It is not unusual for large international firms to have top management teams composed of managers of many different nationalities. The geocentric attitude is the basis for viewing the organization as a worldwide entity engaged in global decision making, including staffing decision. Companies have three sources for staffing positions in international operations: (1) managers from the home country of the firm, (2) managers from the host country, and (3) managers from a third country. In the early stage of the development of an international business, managers were often select from the home country. Some of the reasons include the manager’s experience at the home office and their familiarity with products, personnel, enterprise goals and policies, and so on. This facilitates not only planning but also control. On the other hand, the home-country national may be unfamiliar with the language or the environment of the foreign country. Moreover, it is usually more expensive to send managers and their families abroad. For the family, it is often difficult to adjust to the new environment of a foreign country. Also, host courtiers may pressure the parent firm to employ host country managers.

Manager who are host country nationals do speak the language and are familiar with the country`s environment. Employing them is generally less costly, and it may not require relocating them and their families. The problem is that those managers may not be familiar with the firm’s products and operations, and that control may be more difficult.

The other alternative is to employ third country nationals, who are both international skilled managers. Still, the host country may prefer to have its own nationalities in the positions of power. Professor Arvin Phatak has voiced caution in selecting managers from countries that had political conflicts in the past, such as India and Pakistan or Greece and turkey. There are of course, many other factors that have to be taken into account when operating abroad, as illustrated in the perspectives on differences in the workweek in various countries.